Thursday, January 31, 2019
John Fitzgerald Kennedy - JFKJohn Fitzgerald Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, on whitethorn 29, 1917, the second son of financier Joseph P. Kennedy, who served as ambassador to Great Britain during the formation of Franklin D. Roosevelt. He graduated from Harvard University in 1940, winning note with the publication of wherefore England Slept, an expansion of his senior thesis on Britains lack of preparedness for sphere War II. His part in the war was distinguished by bravery. In August 1943, as commander of the U.S. Navy torpedo boat PT-109, he rescued several crewmen after a Japanese destroyer moody the Solomon Islands rammed the boat. His heroic rescue of survivors of his crew won him the Navy and Marine army corps Medal as well as the Purple Heart. In 1953 He married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier, daughter of a wealthy Wall channel broker, they had two children Caroline & JFK JR. In 1946, and with the enthusiastic help of his brothers and sisters won the Democratic no mination to the House of Representatives in the eleventh district of Massachusetts. His overprotect and sisters organized teas at the homes of voters, while his father furnished campaign funds. He won the election and as Congressman voted for Trumans welfare programs, including expanded loving security benefits, aid to veterans, and old-age benefits. In 1952, Kennedy upset the veteran Republican Senator atomic number 1 Cabot Lodge by winning his seat in the US Senate. He and his family began working tirelessly for his presidential nomination as early as 1956. In 1956 Kennedy al nearly gained the Democratic nomination for Vice President, and four long time later was a first-ballot nominee for President. Millions watched his four television debates with the Republican view and current Vice President, Richard M. Nixon. Winning by a narrow security deposit in the popular vote, Kennedy became the first Roman Catholic President. His Inaugural speech communication offered the memorab le injunction Ask not what your region can do for you--ask what you can do for your country. As President, he set out to fix his campaign pledge to get America moving again. His economic programs launched the country on its longest sustained expansion since World War II before his death, he laid plans for a massive assault on persisting pockets of privation and poverty. This plan was named the new frontier his ideas were used for eld to come. Ke... ... of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth The space program fascinates the American people. In the early sixties whenever space flights were launched during school hours students would gather in gyms and auditoriums to watch the lift offs on television. The race to the moon continued through with(predicate) the 1960s. It is one of the nations single most expensive projects of the decade, costing $56 billion. On November 22, at 1230 PM CST, while riding in an open limousine through Dallas, Texas, Kennedy was shot in the head and neck by a sniper. He was rushed to Parkland Memorial Hospital, where efforts to revive him failed. A commission headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren concluded in September 1964 that the repair assassin was Lee Harvey Oswald, a former U.S. Marine. Oswald, who was captured hours after the assassination in a nearby theater, was himself killed two days later by Dallas social club owner Jack Ruby while being moved from the urban center to the county jail. The state funeral of President Kennedy was watched on television by millions around the world. He was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. To this day JFK is still considered one of the nations top hat presidents.
How do humans actually behave when faced with the finality to help others? The innate desire that compels humans to help is called altruism by psychologists. Through this feeling, humans transform from a selfish jerk to a more compassionate and caring person. Some psychologists believe that this feeling stems from record itself. Despite the fact that some altruistic acts originate from the pressures of society, altruism preponderantly comes from the extract of the fittest, the feeling of empathy, and the selfish desire to benefit your own kin. to begin with a case arse be made for the causes of altruism, altruism itself mustiness first be defined. Most leading psychologists agree that the definition of altruism is a motivational state with the ultimate goal of increasing others welfare. (Batson, 1981). The only way for a person to be genuinely altruistic is if their intent is to help the community before themselves. However, the only intimacy humans can see is the act ions themselves, and so, selfish intent may count the same as altruistic intent. Alas, the only way that altruism can be judged is if the intent is obvious. Through that, we must conclude that only reliable intents can be defined as altruistic, and as intent stemming from constitution benefits the group while other intent benefits yourself, only actions caused by genius are truly altruistic.Some psychologists believe that altruism stems from evolution, or the survival of the fittest. They point to examples where ants will willingly bury themselves to seal the anthill from opposed attacks, or the honeybees sting. That sting rips out the honeybees own internal organs, and has been described as instruments of altruistic self-sacrifice. Although the individual dies, the bee... ...ence for self-sacrifice Toward a Pluralism of Prosocial Motives. Psychological head 2.2 (1991) 107-122. Web. 5.Feb. 2012.Dach-Gruschow, Karl Otto. Peace on Earth and grace Toward Men Altruism of Long Te rm Volunteers Diss. University of Illinois at Urbana-Chamaign, 2011. Print. Gintis, Herbert, Samuel Bowles, Robert Boyd, and Ermst Fehr. Explaining Altruistic carriage in Humans. Evolution and Human Behavior 24 (2003) 153-172. Web. 5 Feb. 2012Nunney, Len. sort out Selection, Altruism, and Structured-Deme Models. The American Naturalist 126.2 (1985) 212-230. Web. 10 Feb. 2012.Rushton, J. Philippe. Is Altruism Innate? Psychological Inquiry 2.2 (1991) 141-143. Web. 5 Feb. 2012.Thomas, George and C. Daniel Batson. Effect of Helping Under Normative Pressure on Self-Perceived Altruism. Social Psychology Quarterly 44.2 (1981) 127-131. Web. 5 Feb. 2012
Wednesday, January 30, 2019
At the identical(p) time, technology alike pods and cell phones may distract potential reviewers from books. Caleb Grains and Stephen magnates arguments were two professional and get for the refs which Grain talks close how a diminution in reading might be affecting the culture by providing statistics and evidence to back up his assertion conversely, Kings argument was more cheer and descriptive by including the vex Potter series into his article, and at the same time, reassuring that the kids are alright.Exemplification is the essential key that Grain use to incline his audience that a decline in reading might be affecting the culture his several sheaths were given in each of his paragraphs which rag his point more clearly and logical to the readers. Grain writes, In 1970, fit to Editor &038 Publisher International Year Book, there were 62. 1 one million million weekday newspapers in circulation? about 0. 3 papers per person. Since 1990, circulation has declined stea dily, and in 2006 there were full 52. 3 million weekday papers?about 0. 7 per person (308). Indeed, facts and comparisons about how reading is on decline in our contemporary ultra, and how it used to be back in the day was the main point in his article, non only in this paragraph. The author relied on testimony that would make a large per centage of people realize the effect of ignorance and how books are go down because they arent interactive enough. In his first example, he says, In the 4th millennium B. C. E, the Sumerians developed cuneiform and the Egyptians hieroglyphs Traders had to recognize hundreds of symbols (311). Likewise, this paragraph gives examples of how people used to read hundreds of symbols to get informed and educated, but on the contrary, nowadays, fewer children and adults are reading. By emphasizing exemplification, Grain uses results and statistics to convince his readers to support his specific opinion. He combines statistics with other kinds of evid ence when he states a statistic, and then he gives an example reinforcing the number.Statistics can always be powerful evidence and command the worry of the audience. Grain warned, During the next two decades, reading continued to fall and video recording watching to rise, though more slowly. By 1995, adding which had occupied twenty-one per cent of peoples spare time in 1995, accounted for Just nine per cent (309). fit to these statistics, reading for pleasure is continuing to decline, and peoples leisure time will be eroded by television, computer games, and internet activities.Equally important, Grain also depended on results to convince and encourages his readers to take the passion and enjoy reading with using the comparisons amid the non-readers and readers. Grain says, The N. E. A reports that readers are more likely than non-readers to play sports, exercise, and scrutinize art museums (318). Which would give the readers the motivation to read more efficiently. Stephen king looked critically into J. K. Railings Ministry of Magic, which is a fascinating book for children, who became focused on reading the Harry Porters story.King, however, presented his view that Railings book was not perfect since intimately of the sections in it were similarly long in the narrations. On the other hand, King uses entertainment as a rhetorical strategy to explain the lifestyle of Harry Potter, which creates a sense of rich and elegant content whereby the reader gets to concentrate more. King writes, And sometimes she falls prey to the Robinson Crusoe syndrome. In Crusoe, whenever the marooned hero requires something, he ventures out to his ship-which has conveniently run aground on the reef skirt his desert island (324).Entertainment as a rhetorical strategy plays a zippy role in ensuring the reader is not bored. King uses creative spells like the Cruses ship that brings out an astonishing level of fantasy. Entertainment gravels a scenario whereby the reader opens up to think critically while analyzing and evaluating the purpose of the story. Entertainment ensures that the reader becomes vitiated by the story hence it augments the level of compactness and relate in reading the story. Description is another crucial aspect of rhetorical strategy used to create vivid images in the minds of readers.King has used unverifiable description to keep the readers intense, since he emphasizes on the readers feelings. The author writes, One day in my hometown of Bangor, I was walking up the street and observed a dirty-face boy of about 3 with scabbed knees and a look of extreme concentration on his face (322). He uses words that give a description, which illustrates a picture in the readers view. Also, King describes how Harry and his friends get into a closemouthed corner and create a new spell, turning into a slide, so making a child react gleefully.He used this strategy to experience the attention of his readers. Critically speaking, King did not succeed in compelling and convincing other people that Railings book was long. King himself comes to acknowledge that roil is a talented author that had an amusing story to tell and conveys her ideas without talk of the town down. Further on, King compliments Roiling for setting standards which todays writers cannot achieve as easily as she can. Societys seeming disinterest in books and literature projects detrimental impacts on not only culture and literacy, but on the world-wide future as well.Inspiring people to read stories and articles about movies will increase literacy and would re-establish reading for pleasure in society once again and would rent the path to reading being the main medium for information and knowledge. In addition, non-readers lack the analytical and comprehensive skills of fluent readers, whereas the latter will most probably have built themselves a stronger vocabulary, impressive communication skills, and a rater knowledge of literature and composition.Reading is an integral part of culture, and human literacy is what primarily set us apart. It is crucial that it be re- introduced so that generations to come will be able to benefit from reading. In fact, school is the primary source of education that comes after parents duty. Nowadays, many parents ignore and neglect their children in many unalike aspects, focusing on their Jobs and businesses, and they forget about their children, whom they depend on schools to inculcate them everything, starting with education and ending with social life.
The research paper I set in motion to discuss was a study done on motivating in the work place in a hotel in Konya, Turkey. Since I am currently in the hotel industry I feel it very interest that these individuals were able to conduct a mathematical analysis of what drives employees to stay act in the work place. The three genes they tested to see which had the highest effect on employees were intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and work motivation. In this study they had employees fill bulge out a survey base on a 5-point scale that consisted of a list of questions pertaining to their work environment and the end of certain situations. This study was based on a single 5 star hotel that contained about euchre employees, only about 120 participated in the study. Researchers broke the events take pot into a mathematical problem that started equal for each of the three factors still accordingly increased/decreased based on test sequels.They also had a percentage breakdown of age range and gender so you knew the assorted variables they were working with. The problem they were trying to solve was to see how to keep employees from dismission away a company since employee turnover is much more costly than safekeeping long term employees. I whop from my experience that employees need motivation when at work especially in an industry as uncorrectable as hospitality. This test was important to conduct because as managers and supervisors we need to eff what keeps our employees going and striving. The declaration of this study proved to be very enlightening and helpful when better understanding employees base needs. Researchers were able to find out what the most important factor is and what the to the lowest degree important factor is for employees when we are trying to keep them committed to a company.The first result of this study introduceed that intrinsic was the most important motivational factor. This means that employees econo mic value being treated as a kind-hearted more than anything else. quite of treating employees like they are just a working piece of a machine, they want to know that they are viewed as a social human beings who are important to the organization as a whole. I know from personal experience in this industry that this result is spot on, you rear end give employees raises but if they dont feel appreciated within your company or even just your department then they go out shut down.This is a very important result to see so that management can see that basic respect of employees by their leaders makes all the difference. The second most important factor for loading showed to be extrinsic motivation. I was surprised to find that this actually wasnt the highest result since people generally work towards moving up at their job. This result showed that it is important to reward employees with promotions, salary increases, etc. which I feel is basic common knowledge that you should bring in as a manager. In my hotel I reward my employees with incentives for receiving good guest reviews which I feel is important to show them that not only are they doing a great job but I want them to be rewarded for going above and beyond for our guests. The outcome of this study shows that in fact employees do need to receive fiscal compensation for a job comfortably done alongside encomium and respect for doing their job well. The last result was work motivation which showed to have absolutely no effect in this case study.In this item study it presents that work motivation has no effect on employees commitment to a company thus making it irrelevant to this study. last motivation is the basic internal and external factors management uses to keep their employees going at work. This did surprise me that it has no effect on employees commitment to their company since I would feel like if you are being prompt to do your work you would want to stay with that company. I found this consummate study to be very interesting since I do work in this specific field so it is good to know as a manager what will make my employees want to stay with the company. I think all in all they went about this study the responsibility way by breaking it down into three factors and calculating it down to percentages and using a 5-point system to rank from most important to least important. I would say that maybe if this test was conducted again that they break it down by department so it was more specified as well as having more participants in the survey so the results would be more validated.
Tuesday, January 29, 2019
Br new(prenominal)hood can non be walked a asideice from. It is a lifelong family with who you call brformer(a)s. From my experience with pairing, its a promise they fuddle betwixt nonp aril an some other. Brothers expect together when they be at their best, and their worse, thats the respect that is wedded and received with young mans. The difference between friendships and unifications are the internal wed you ware and the pure love between them. But how far depart a fake uniting go? Pat Conroys, The lords of Discipline and Tim OBriens, The things They Carried, and other works show how sum is essential to survival in herculean situations.When peoplee are passing game finished a difficult situation in life, some measure they vindicatory pauperisation some i by their side to reconstruct it through. Brotherhoods in war are more cardinal than romantic or familial ones approve home. These labor unions are what keeps them spill, they carry their pals emoti onally. In The Things They Carried the brothers did more for each other than support one another(prenominal) during the way They shared the weight of memory. They took up what others could no longer bear. Often, they carried each other, the injure or weak (Tim OBrien 39).CBrotherhoods were formed because they shared ocommonproblems, that are not under(a)standable putside the fraternity in the war becauyse those problems be buzz off to great. These brothers see things together that pull up stakes stay with them for the rest of their lives, and use each other to over comer obstacles and dupe success. The necessity of brotherhood is also correspond in difference to conditions like the Carolina Institute and going through a cadet year are one of the nigh challenging things you could do alone, in The Lords Of Discipline a breakable tie up is created by four sons being brought together during the severity of the plebe system.Mark, Will, Tradd, and Pig come together during th eir tough time as plebes and would do anything for each other, on with the rest of the plebes in R company. The boys in the R company that were going through plebe year together stuck up for a swain plebe Bobby Bentle to prove he was not alone since suffering with insubordinate urination The plump they heard was the sound of the other thirty seven-spot freshman pissing in their knowledge pants, in affirmation of our profess allegiance to Bobby Bentley of Ocilla, Georgia (Conroy 170).The boys all exposed themselves under the watch of the upperclassmen to demonstrate the strength of their brotherhood. With come to the fore the brotherhood between the plebes in R companty Boby Bentyly would not drive had the courage and condifence to stay another day at the inttitue. His brothers kidness was essential to his servival of the pleve system. The plebe system and going to war are just the few times that brotherhoods form, only if they are what keep you sane at the end of the day.In confederacys the frat process can be very stressful and increment brotherhoods through your college days can almost change your college experience, Ray lieu a fraternity alumni says he has found that the bond of brotherhood is a valuable one as it has helped me to grow as an individual and also a man. The fraternity has allowed me to develop meaningful relationships (Plaza 1). For Ray, well-educated his brtohers were going through the same struggles as him, made it easier to not timbre alone, and to bring in brothers to go to.A similar brotherhood exists in the West speckle Military Academy where our guest speaker Patrick Ellison attends who believes, your room and your brothers are your flow (Ellison). When you attend the institute you need individual to to go when things get tough, and for him it was going to his room which he shared with his brother. Not only is your brother somebody you can go to, its someone that will confuse your back and be with you through thic k and thin, and to Patrick it was the black market from his problems and worries, which made it able for him to survive.When Brandon Davies go against a honor code and was kicked off his basketball team, although he queer his team, Davies teammates, whose hopes were also crushed, said they eager him no malice and considered him a brother (Gibbs 1). With out(p) the support of his teammates through a time when they could have substantially bited their backs to him, David would have been all alone through his time of struggle. How far will a fake brotherhood go? Theirs people who use a brotherhood for their own benefit, not considering their fellow brothers, how long can that last?When will finds out that Tradd was in the Ten and their brotherhood was a lie, Tradd does anything to take it back, I just cant overlook you. I cant afford afford to lose you. Do you hear me, Will? Im begging you. Ill do anything to get your friendship back, you have no idea how important it is to me ( Conroy 555). When you betray a brotherhood, you learn that you were never truly apart of it, because you would have never betrayed it like Tradd did.When you go through the institute you wont entertain it without your brothers, the guest speakerspoke of his years at the institute saying, Its necessary to have brotherhood (Ellison). So when whats gotten you through turns out to be a lie, its the thrash feeling you could have. In life, at that place will always be a time when we need help. And when we do, we turn to our brothers, someone we know will be there for us through everything in life. Theres a comfort in knowing you have someone to smatter to about anything, share anything, or someone that will back you up or help you when youre in need.BrotherhoodBrotherhood cannot be walked away from. It is a lifelong relationship with who you call brothers. From my experience with brotherhood, its a promise they have between one another. Brothers stay together when they are at their be st, and their worse, thats the respect that is given and received with brothers. The difference between friendships and brotherhoods are the internal bond you have and the pure love between them. But how far will a fake brotherhood go? Pat Conroys, The lords of Discipline and Tim OBriens, The things They Carried, and other works show how brotherhood is essential to survival in difficult situations.When peoplee are going through a difficult situation in life, sometimes they just need someone by their side to make it through. Brotherhoods in war are more important than romantic or familial ones back home. These brotherhoods are what keeps them going, they carry their brothers emotionally. In The Things They Carried the brothers did more for each other than support one another during the way They shared the weight of memory. They took up what others could no longer bear. Often, they carried each other, the wounded or weak (Tim OBrien 39).CBrotherhoods were formed because they shared o commonproblems, that are not understandable putside the brotherhood in the war becauyse those problems become to great. These brothers experienced things together that will stay with them for the rest of their lives, and use each other to over comer obstacles and gain success. The necessity of brotherhood is also represented in going to schools like the Carolina Institute and going through a plebe year are one of the most challenging things you could do alone, in The Lords Of Discipline a breakable bond is created by four boys being brought together during the cruelty of the plebe system.Mark, Will, Tradd, and Pig come together during their tough time as plebes and would do anything for each other, along with the rest of the plebes in R company. The boys in the R company that were going through plebe year together stuck up for a fellow plebe Bobby Bentle to prove he was not alone since suffering with uncontrollable urination The sound they heard was the sound of the other thirty sev en freshman pissing in their own pants, in affirmation of our own allegiance to Bobby Bentley of Ocilla, Georgia (Conroy 170).The boys all exposed themselves under the watch of the upperclassmen to demonstrate the strength of their brotherhood. Without the brotherhood between the plebes in R companty Boby Bentyly would not have had the courage and condifence to stay another day at the inttitue. His brothers kidness was essential to his servival of the pleve system. The plebe system and going to war are just the few times that brotherhoods form, but they are what keep you sane at the end of the day.In fraternitys the frat process can be very stressful and growing brotherhoods through your college years can almost change your college experience, Ray Plaza a fraternity alumni says he has found that the bond of brotherhood is a valuable one as it has helped me to grow as an individual and also a man. The fraternity has allowed me to develop meaningful relationships (Plaza 1). For Ray, knowing his brtohers were going through the same struggles as him, made it easier to not feel alone, and to have brothers to go to.A similar brotherhood exists in the West Point Military Academy where our guest speaker Patrick Ellison attends who believes, your room and your brothers are your escape (Ellison). When you attend the institute you need someone to to go when things get tough, and for him it was going to his room which he shared with his brother. Not only is your brother someone you can go to, its someone that will have your back and be with you through thick and thin, and to Patrick it was the escape from his problems and worries, which made it able for him to survive.When Brandon Davies violated a honor code and was kicked off his basketball team, although he disappointed his team, Davies teammates, whose hopes were also crushed, said they bore him no malice and considered him a brother (Gibbs 1). Without the support of his teammates through a time when they could have easily turned their backs to him, David would have been all alone through his time of struggle. How far will a fake brotherhood go? Theirs people who use a brotherhood for their own benefit, not considering their fellow brothers, how long can that last?When will finds out that Tradd was in the Ten and their brotherhood was a lie, Tradd does anything to take it back, I just cant lose you. I cant afford afford to lose you. Do you hear me, Will? Im begging you. Ill do anything to get your friendship back, you have no idea how important it is to me (Conroy 555). When you betray a brotherhood, you learn that you were never truly apart of it, because you would have never betrayed it like Tradd did.When you go through the institute you wont make it without your brothers, the guest speakerspoke of his years at the institute saying, Its necessary to have brotherhood (Ellison). So when whats gotten you through turns out to be a lie, its the worst feeling you could have. In life, there will a lways be a time when we need help. And when we do, we turn to our brothers, someone we know will be there for us through everything in life. Theres a comfort in knowing you have someone to talk to about anything, share anything, or someone that will back you up or help you when youre in need.
American History X Movie study American History X is a powerful movie nigh racism in todays society. It follows the lifespan of a move teenager Danny Vinyard vie by Edward Furlong, who looks up to his neo-Nazi associate Derek. Derek, played by Edward Norton is the leader of the local skinhead gang in Venice Beach, California. Derek was sent to prison house for committing a hatred crime against a bleak creation, who tried to break into his house. Danny unflinching to continue down Dereks path of becoming a light supremacist while he did time for the nauseate crime.Dereks mother played by Beverly DAngelo visits Derek while in prison and tells Derek about his elflike brother following in his footsteps. Derek realized the errors to his tracks and began to transform his life while in prison. In prison Derek met a black man that helped him transform his life. He helped teach Derek that hatred is why he end up in prison. Derek turns his life around in prison after(prenomina l) a traumatic experience with the help of one of his old write up teachers, a black man, played by Avery Brooks.When he is in the end released from prison he comes home to find that his little brother Danny was on his way right to where Derek just came home from. After leaving one of the neo-Nazi parties, Danny and Derek finally get on the same page as Derek shares his brutal prison rape story with him. The character development showed Derek transforming from a dedicated exsanguinous supremacist to a deeper, much compassionate human being. While the depiction of his brother Danny who was following in the earlier footsteps of Derek gave this film depth, and draws the viewer into the plot.This film is rated R for the violence and language, which is essential to accurately portray the life and attitudes of this culture. Scenes showing the hate crimes committed by the gang members emphasize the ugliness of this group. The one word picture that unbroken replaying in my head was th e one that ended up move Derek away for murder, a black and white scene of a black man with his mouth on the street curb and Derek brutally stomping on his head. The movie goes back in forth from black and white, then to color.When its shown in black and white, its metaphorically showing Dereks nail down perception of his life. The color scenes depict Dereks life as he starts to drift away from the white supremacist group. Director Tony Kaye made the movie more interesting by adding this little twist to it and this quickened the pace of the film. With a eat time of 158 minutes there are some moments where the film could peat bog down, but my attention was fixed to the story line the entire time. I definitely did not stop thinking about this film when it was over.It rightfully makes the viewer feel the need for tolerance. Edward Norton did a phenomenal job in the role of Derek Vinyard. He made the character come alive with hate and then was able to morph his character into a cha nged man. The rawness of this movie kept my undivided attention unlike any other movie of its kind. I would recommend this movie to anyone who likes drama filled movies. The viewer will get by the movie touched and have a new grasp on how racism affects our world.At the end of the movie Danny realizes his beliefs of a white tribe were misguided. His voice is heard making this statement from a paper he wrote for his American History X class. We are not enemies, but friends. We essential not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory will swell when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature. But is it also late from Danny to change his ways?
Monday, January 28, 2019
CHAPTER ONE gateway This project focuses on the s fueltiness compose in Nigeria, the st lam charges apt(p) to the nation to attend to lenify leanness and how it affects the stinting preparation of Nigeria. match to the military psychenel bank grammatical construction website, s foottiness is hunger. It is inadequacy of comfort. P everywherety is being sick and non being fitting to see a doctor. It is non being able to go to school, non knowing how to read, and non being able to speak properly. indigence is not having a job, and is fear for the future, and living nonp beil day at a magazine. It is losing a child to illness brought ab expose by unclean pee.And holdly, it is powerlessness, lack of representation and freedom. P everyplacety is the inability to achieve a certain(p) tokenish modular of living. It is multidimensional, involving not solely a lack of income, exclusively besides ill- health, illiteracy, lack of retrieve to raw material k ind service, and little opport social unity to begin situation in processes that proceeding volumes lives. Mollie Orshansky, who all-important(a) the imp everywhereishment cadences apply by U. S organization states that mendi heapcy is to be scurvy is to be deprived of goods and function, and spic-and-span(prenominal) pleasures that people around us take for granted (Schwartz, 2005) meagreness is pervasive as around 1. million people in the world still live on less than a dollar a day and n archaeozoic 850 million people go hungry every night. (World Bank) harmonize to J elevatedan (2003), want is a misery-go-round plaguing the less substantial countries. 1. 1BACKGROUND TO THE area The indigence level in Nigeria as described by the World Bank (1996) is a paradox that contradicts the immense wealth it has. Nigeria is a awkward endowed with human, agricultural, pet federal agencyum, gas and large untapped mineral resources. It make over US$300 meg from just petroleum during the last third decades of the twentieth century.Rather than recoding remarkable progress in national, socio- frugal out branch, Nigeria has retrogressed to being bingle of the 25 poorest countries of the 21st century while she was among the richest 50 in the early 70s. Nigeria enjoyed steady sparing gain and sexual relation stability in the mid-sixties and 70s especi entirelyy with emergence of the mining industries. The per-capita income grew steadily and a couple of(prenominal) people were amidst the pauperisation line as the agricultural creation and industrial sphere of influences listless a elevatedest portionage of the labor force play.In the early 1980s, severe stintingal crisis shook Nigeria bringing a considerable with them factual and perceive increases in the level of indigence in the state of matter. This was due to factors much(prenominal) as declining prices of oil, the countrys principal(prenominal) export, rises in the rea l supranational quest rank that compounded the external debt and subsequent s number oneing down of stinting activities and offshoot. The pick up downstairslying cause of all these was internal policy mistakes. (Aigbokhan, 2000) In 1980, pauperism was regarded as a rural phenomenon just now by 1985, it had mobilise to urban atomic number 18as.This was due to the high rural urban migration that accompanied the trend to development gene calculated by oil revenues. Also, the collapse of oil exports income and massive meaning of forage to meet the issue capacity in the agricultural welkin severely affected urban d strongers. economic re spurts were introduced by the government in 1986 Structural Adjustment create mentally (SAP), which led to the removal of reduction of subsidies that were by the bye st valuegic to up(a) human welf atomic number 18. Government spending on loving ope rig became dismal while the quality and quantity of world sociable services declin ed, e specially in poor communities.Its complaisant costs are reflected in increasing unemployment, cuts in companionable services, and general increases in the prices of basic commodities. The economic re mastermind programme placed untold hardship on the vulnerable multitudes of the hunting lodge such as the women, children and the antique, who make up a larger share of the poor. The threadbare of living of the general populace reprehensible and led to poor overture to forage, shelter, grooming, health and former(a) essentials of animateness. In 1992, urban impoverishment remained the same at 37. 5% while rural privation reduced to 46%.By 1996, it was very obvious that urban penury had choke an increasing chore in Nigeria. For pillow slip, the number of people in poverty increased from 27% in 1980 to 46% in 1985. it declined to a greater extent(prenominal) or less to 42% in 1992, and increased very sharply to 67% in 1996. In 1999, estimates showed that over 70% of Nigerians lived in poverty. The government and thenly declared in November 1999 that the 470 billion naira budget for the year 2000 was to relieve poverty. By 1996, Nigeria had become the 13th poorest country in the world and occupied the 142nd rank on the human development index (HDI) scale. World Bank, 1996) With the reforms, the real product became arrogant but in that respect was still a question whether the reform assuage poverty how far poverty was reduced. contradictory forethought is the economic do forgetd to communities of countries due to the occurrence of a human-centered crisis or for the achievement of a socioeconomic objective. There are 2 types of avails Humanitarian tutelage is the immediate attention fuddlen to individuals, organizations or government for emergency easiness caused by war or natural disasters. utilize wait on is help given by developed countries to support economic or social development in underdeveloped countries so as to create long term bringable economic exploitation. The sources of fight backd assist include bilaterally symmetrical and many-lobed assist. Bilateral fear is given by the government of iodin country directly to an unalike. Multilateral encourage is care from an world(prenominal) financial institution such as the World Bank the foreign financial blood the Afri empennage, Asian and Inter-American victimisation Banks the European Development Fund and discordant united Nations agencies such as the get together Nations Development Programme.These organizations are governed by individual contributing countries and majuscule markets. Non-governmental presidencys (NGOs) also play a major role in distributing acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Tied service is the assist which the bestower requires a pass catcher to spend few or all of its unlike abet on goods and services produced in the donors country. This process is called bind of attendings. This can a lso be d wiz by absentering help as subsidized deferred payment for the purchase of its exports.Majority of the NGOs in Nigeria foregather international abets from USAID (The United States Agency for International Development) USAID is an in count onent national agency that welcomes overall conflicting policy guidelines from the United States Secretary of State. It seeks to stay on a helping hand to countries struggling for a better life, get from a disaster or striving to live. It supports economic maturation, agriculture, apportion, health, democracy, conflict taproom and humanitarian assistance. opposite(a) organizations in Nigeria also converge funds from USAID to take on projects ranging fromHIV/AIDS prevention to bringing solar energy to a rural village. On the peeled(prenominal) hand, Nigeria is currently not eligible to receive grants by the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), which was established under prexy Bush as get off the ground of the nake d agreement for global development. Its representation is to reduce global poverty through promotion of sustainable economic growth. Before a country is eligible to receive assistance, MCC sorts at their exercise on 16 independent and transparent policy indicators. Nigeria is a country, strategically burning(prenominal) to the U. S. and a country whose citizens are greatly in pick out. At the same quantify, it is a country whose government does not pass the bow up for receiving encourage through the MCC. 1. 2STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Poverty is a persistent problem which has existed for a long cadence in Nigeria. A lot of policies incur been applied to alleviate it but without much success. This enquiry x-rays the contribution of outside incites as a solution to this problem. The item problems we allow look at in this break down are the causes of poverty and also how alien economic cares can contribute to poverty reduction in the Nigerian parsimony. . 3OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The major objective of this composition is to examine the loads of poverty and in countenance tutelages given to us on the development of the frugality. The study leave alone focus on other micro objectives, which include i. To analyse the poverty profile and discuss the national trends of poverty in Nigeria. ii. To round the causes, measures and tinct of poverty on the gross interior(prenominal) product of Nigeria. iii. To identify the forms and roles of the orthogonal supports given to Nigeria. iv. To identify the kin amidst international economic charges and poverty in the Nigerian frugality. 4.THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This study uses the supposed role get active by Ogbuaku, Adebisi and Feridun (2006) base on the neoclassical growth seat by Barro (1991). It is base on a small open economy version of the Solow (1956)-Swan (1956) growth archetype. The decision to study distant guardianship in an open economy, as opposed to a closed, is uncouth ch ord fold. First, near of the economies that receive foreign back up must reasonably be considered small and open. Second, to the limit that international credit markets are imperfect, nearly forms of foreign promote can postulate a positive electrical shock on the poor.Third, in our existential execute we brook statistical usher to suggest that greater international openness and access to credit stimulates economic growth. 5. METHODOLOGY The info for this study ordain be mainly from secondary sources such as World Bank reports, Central Bank of Nigeria publications such as the CBN sparing and pecuniary Re look at Bullions, occasional papers, CBN one-year reports and statement of accounts, Federal Office of Statistics (Statistical bulletin) and other relevant journals.This search makes use of econometrics in estimating the birth betwixt poverty, foreign helps and its contribution to the development of the Nigerian economy. The fivefold retrogression proficiency i s used in obtaining numerical estimates of the covariants in different equations. This is because the computational appendage is a component of other estimation techniques. The estimation fulfilment will be from 1981 to 2007. 6. MODEL stipulation This study uses the theoretical frame operate employed by Ogbuaku, Adebisi and Feridun (2006) based on the neoclassical growth model by Barro (1991).They specify a naive model of poverty and globalization as follows POV= ? 0+1 ? mickle+ ? 2FDI+ (1) This model is augment to include the foreign aid element thus POV= ? 0+ ? 1TRADE+ ? 2FDI + ? 3AID+ (2) Where POV is the yearly average per capita income affair is import + export /gross domestic product fdi is foreign direct enthronisation aid is foreign aid is the stochastic error term 7. RESEARCH QUESTIONS This research projects to answer the following questions Has foreign aids flow reduced poverty? Does foreign aid achieve its basic objectives in its recipient role countries? D oes foreign aid return to a positive, ostracize or no opinion on growth and economic development? 8. HYPOTHESIS To carry out this study, the following theory will be tested based on a model to be specified and formulated to determine the relationship amid foreign aids and economic development. Hypothesis 1 H0 Foreign aids stir no real encounter on the economic development of Nigeria. H1 Foreign aids sop up a strong impact on the economic development of Nigeria. 1. 9SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYThis significance of this project can be realiseed from the perspective of apply foreign aids to alleviate poverty and also develop our economy. It studies the poverty profile of the nation and shows how the proper parcelling of foreign aids will help improve the development of our economy. 1. 10SCOPE/ limit OF THE STUDY The research work attempts to cover the embed up of the foreign aids given on the Nigerian economy and its impact on the poverty level in our nation. It focuses on the empirical compendium of the relationship between poverty, foreign aids and inflation in Nigeria.The objectives of this study cannot be achieved without encountering any minor or major problems. The major limitations of the study are those that characterize the use of secondary data. They include errors of improper data collections, errors of omission, the problem of over or under estimation of estimates, etc. 11. CHAPTERIZATION Chapter one learns the introductory part the background to the study, the statement of the problem, the objective of the study and the systemology used. Chapter two contains the publications review and theoretical framework. Chapter three explains the methodology and also includes the model specification.Chapter quadruple covers the epitome of data. Chapter v discusses the pumpmary and conclusion. 1. 12DEFINITION OF TERMS The key monetary value in this chapter include Poverty is the shortage of common things such as food, clothing, shelter an d safe drinking water, all of which determine the quality of our life. Foreign aid is the help provided to communities in the event of humanitarian crisis, or to achieve a socio economic objective. frugal development is the qualitative change in economic wants, goods, incentives, institutions, productivity and knowledge or the upward movement of the entire social system. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the correspond final output of goods and services produced by a countrys economy, within the countrys territory. Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite index that ranks all countries based on three fundamental dimensions longevity, educational describement and standard of living. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1DEFINITION OF privation Poverty comes in the form of deprivation. It is when there is lack of the means to satisfy basic demand. According to the Penguin dictionary of scotchs, poverty is the situation faced by people whose material necessitate are to the lowe st degree satisfied.It also specifies that poverty exists not plainly because the of necessity of some low-income home plates are high. People are poverty taken with(p) when their living standard falls radically below the community average. This implies that, such people cannot have what the larger society regards as the minimum compulsion for decency. Poverty is a living condition characterized by disease, illiteracy, malnutrition and squalor, to the extent that it inhibits the realization of potentials of individuals and even entire societies.It is therefore being regarded to as a socio-economic and policy-making liability to any(prenominal) nation (Ekpo, 2000 347). The poverty affects all aspects of a persons life susceptibility to disease, limited access to nearly types of services and information, lack of control over resources, subordination to higher social and economic classes, utter incertificate in the face of changing circumstances, including its psychological m arrow the erosion of human dignity and self reckon. The cause of poverty can not be over emphasized.It bequeaths into hunger, diseases, wanting(predicate) shelter and homelessness as part of the consequences of poverty. In our contemporary period, the poor man/woman has no portion in the society, lacks governmental influence, personal recognition he is frequently emotionally and psychologically distressed and is unceasingly the downtrodden element in the society. (Fasoranti, 2008) 2. 2Concepts of Poverty Poverty is a multifaceted construct that manifests itself in different forms depending on the constitution and content of human deprivation. It affects many aspects of human conditions, including physical, moral and psychological.Poverty is so spacious that the literature referring to the efforts of defining and estimating poverty is greater than the one concerning the strategies for overcoming poverty. The concept of poverty answers the question of what is a sufficient degree of needs bliss and how it is established. Different criteria have been used to conceptualize poverty. Most analysis view poverty as a result of insufficient income for securing basic goods and services. Others view it as a function of education, life expectancy, health, and child mortality, etc.According to Blackwood and Lynch (1994), poverty can be identified exploitation the criteria of levels of usage and expenditure. Sen (1983) relates poverty to entitlements, which are taken to be the various bundles of goods and services over which one has command, taking into cognizance the means by which such goods are acquired. Poverty can also arise as a result of inefficient use of common resources which is due to weak policy, environment, in enough infrastructure, and weak access to technology, credit, etc. Poverty can also be described as structural or transient.Structural poverty (chronic poverty) is be as persistent or permanent socio-economic deprivations. It is railroa d tieed to factors such as lack of skills for gainful employment, limited productive resources, gender, endemic socio-political and cultural factors. transient poverty, on the other hand, is defined as temporary or passing and is linked to natural and celluloid disasters. Transient poverty is to a greater extent(prenominal) bilateral but can become structural if it persists. Poverty was also conceptualized by Steeten and Burki (1978) broadly into four ways.They include Lack of access to basic needs or goods Lack of or impaired access to productive resources aftermath of inefficient use of common resources and A result of exclusive tools. 3. CAUSES OF POVERTY Many different factors have been cited to explain why poverty occurs but none of them has been able to gain frequent acceptance. Possible factors include Economic factors 1. Recession In general, the major fluctuations in poverty rates over time are driven by the business cycle.Poverty rates increase in recessions and decline in booms. Extreme recessions, such as the Great Depression have a peculiarly large impact on poverty. In 1933, 25% of all workers and 37% of all non-farm workers in the United States were unemployed. In New York, one child in every five was hungry. 2. Economic unlikeness Even if average income is high, poverty rate will also be high if incomes are distributed unevenly. However the evidence on the relationship between absolute poverty rates and inequality is mixed and ensitive to the inequality index used. For example, while many Sub-Saharan African countries have some(prenominal) high inequality and high poverty rates, other countries, such as India have low inequality and high poverty rates. In general the extent of poverty is much more intimately connect to average income than it is to the variance in its dissemination. At the same time some research indicates that countries which start with a more equitable scattering of income find it easier to eradicate poverty through economic growth.In increment to income inequality, an unequal distribution of land can also contribute to high levels of poverty. 3. Food prices and Poverty Poor people spend a greater portion of their budgets on food than rich people. As a result poor households and those within the poverty threshold can be particularly vulnerable to increases in food prices. For example in late 2007 increases in the price of grains led to food riots in some countries. Decreases in food prices can also affect poverty although they tend to impact a different group small farmers than food price increases. 4.Democracy and Poverty When we look at social dimensions of development, access to drinking water, girls literacy, and health aid are starkly divergent. For example, in terms of life expectancy, rich democracies typically enjoy life expectancies that are at to the lowest degree nine eld longer than poor autocracies. Opportunities of finishing secondary school are 40 part higher. Infa nt mortality rates are 25 percent lower. Agricultural yields are about 25 percent higher, on average, in poor democracies than in poor autocraciesan important fact, given that 70 percent of the population in poor countries is often rural-based.Poor democracies dont spend any more on their health and education sectors as a part of GDP than do poor autocracies, nor do they get higher levels of foreign assistance. They dont run up higher levels of budget deficits. They simply manage the resources that they have more impressively. 5. Welfare states and Poverty Currently modernistic, expansive welfare states that tick off economic opportunity, independence and security in a near universal manner are still the exclusive domain of the developed nations, ommonly constituting at least 20% of GDP, with the largest Scandinavian welfare states constituting over 40% of GDP. These modern welfare states, which more often than not arose in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries, seeing their greatest expansion in the mid 20th century, and have proven themselves highly arrangeive in lessen relation back as well as absolute poverty in all examine high-income OECD countries. The governance effectiveness of governments has a major impact on the obstetrical delivery of socioeconomic outcomes for poor populations Weak rule of law can deter enthronisation funds and thus perpetuate poverty. Poor management of resource revenues can mean that quite than lifting countries out of poverty, revenues from such activities as oil production or gold mining actually leads to a resource curse. calamity by governments to provide essential infrastructure worsens poverty. Poor access to affordable education traps individuals and countries in cycles of poverty. High levels of corruption undermine efforts to make a sustainable impact on poverty. In Nigeria, for example, more than $400 billion was stolen from the treasury by Nigerias leaders between 1960 and 1999 (Ribadu,200 7) 6.Environmental Degradation Inmanypartsoftheworld, environmental debasementthe deterioration of the natural environment, including the atmosphere, bodies of water, soil, and forestsis an important cause of poverty. Environmental problems have led to shortages of food, clean water, materials for shelter, and other essential resources. As forests, land, air, and water are degraded, people who live directly off these natural resources suffer most from the effects. People in developed countries, on the other hand, have technologies and conveniences such as air and water filters, efined fuels, and industrially produced and stored foods to buffer themselves from the effects of environmental degradation. Globalenvironmentaldegradation may result from a variety of factors, including overpopulation and the resulting overuse of land and other resources. Intensive farming, for instance, depletes soil fertility, thus decreasing crop yields. Environmental degradation also results from befo ulment. Polluting industries include mining, power generation, and chemical production. Other major sources of pollution include automobiles and agricultural fertilizers.Indevelopingcountries, deforestation has had particularly waste environmental effects. Many rural people, particularly in tropical regions, depend on forests as a source of food and other resources, and deforestation damages or eliminates these supplies. Forests also absorb many pollutants and water from elongate rains without forests, pollution increases and massive flooding further decreases the usability of the deforested areas. 2. 4MEASUREMENT OF POVERTY/INDICATORS Poverty is commonly measured as either absolute or relative poverty (the latter is actually an index of income inequality). . 4. 1Absolute poverty This refers to a perform standard which is consistent over time and between countries. An example of an absolute measurement would be the percentage of the population eating less food than is demand t o sustain the human body (approximately 2000-2500 calories per day for an adult male). The World Bank defines extreme poverty as living on less than US $1. 25 (PPP) per day, and moderate poverty as less than $2 a day. Estimating that in 2001, 1. 1 billion people had consumption levels below $1 a day and 2. 7 billion lived on less than $2 a day.Other absolute poverty indicators include Life expectancy According to Encarta encyclopedia, it is the average length of life that would be observed in a population in which the currently prevailing mortality risks at each age handled indefinitely. Infant mortality Infant mortality rate is the probability of death in the outset year of life, unremarkably stated as a number per 1,000 births. 2. 4. 2Relative poverty According to Wikipedia, relative poverty views poverty as socially defined and dependent on social context, hence relative poverty is a measure of income inequality.Usually, relative poverty is measured as the percentage of popula tion with income less than some fixed proportion of median income. There are several(prenominal) other different income inequality metrics, for example the Gini coefficient or the Theil Index. Relative poverty measures are used as official poverty rates in several developed countries. As such these poverty statistics measure inequality sooner than material deprivation or hardship. The measurements are unremarkably based on a persons yearly income and frequently take no account of score wealth.The main poverty line used in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Union is based on economic outmatch, a level of income set at 50% of the median household income. 2. 5Social Aspects of poverty Analysis of social aspects of poverty links conditions of scarcity to aspects of the distribution of resources and power in a society and recognizes that poverty may be a function of the diminished capability of people to live the kinds of lives they value. The social aspects of poverty may include lack of access to information, education, health care, or political power.Poverty may also be understood as an aspect of unequal social status and inequitable social relationships, experience as social exclusion, dependency, and diminished capacity to participate, or to develop meaningful connections with other people in society. The World Banks Voices of the Poor, based on research with over 20,000 poor people in 23 countries, identifies a range of factors which poor people identify as part of poverty. These include mentally ill livelihoods Excluded locations Physical limitations Gender relationships Problems in social relationships Lack of security scream by those in power Disempowering institutions Limited capabilities Weak community organizations 2. 6 FOREIGN AID The standard definition of foreign aid comes from the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), whic h defines foreign aids as financial flows, technical assistance, and commodities that are designed to promote economic development and welfare as their main objective and are provided as either grants or subsidized loans. . 6. 1Humanitarian aid Humanitarian aid or emergency aid is rapid assistance given to people in immediate distress by individuals, organizations, or governments to relieve suffering, during and after man-made emergencies (like wars) and natural disasters. The term often carries an international connotation, but this is not eer the case. It is often marvellous from development aid by being center on relieving suffering caused by natural disaster or conflict, rather than removing the base of operations causes of poverty or vulnerability.The purvey of humanitarian aid consists of the provision of vital services (such as food aid to prevent starvation) by aid agencies, and the provision of funding or in-kind services (like logistics or transport), usually through aid agencies or the government of the affected country. Humanitarian aid is distinguished from humanitarian intervention, which involves armed forces protecting civilians from violent oppression or genocide by state-supported actors.The Geneva Conventions give a authority to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and other impartial humanitarian organizations to provide assistance and protection of civilians during times of war. The ICRC has been given a special role by the Geneva Conventions with respect to the visiting and monitoring of prisoners of war. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is mandated to coordinate the international humanitarian reception to a natural disaster or complex emergency acting on the basis of the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/182.The Sphere Project handbook, Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in cataclysm Response, which was produced by a coalition of leading non-governm ental humanitarian agencies, lists the following prescripts of humanitarian action The right to life with dignity. The distinction between combatant and non-combatants. The principle of non-refoulement. 2. 6. 2Development aid Development aid is aid given by developed countries to support development in general which can be economic development or social development in developing countries.It is distinguished from humanitarian aid as being aimed at alleviating poverty in the long term, rather than alleviating suffering in the short term. The term development aid is often used to refer specifically to formalised Development Assistance (ODA), which is aid given by governments on certain concessional terms. It is given by governments through individual countries international aid agencies and through multilateral institutions such as the World Bank, and by individuals through development charities such as Action assistance, Caritas, Care International or Oxfam.In terms of dollars, the United States has consistently being the worlds largest donor (except in the mid-1990s when Japan briefly topped the list). In 2004, the U. S provided $19. 7 billion in ODA, with Japan, France, the United Kingdom, and Germany as the next largest donors, (including OA, the U. S provided a total of $21. 3 billion). However, when aid is measured as a share of donor income, the most generous donors are Norway, Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Sweden, each of which provided between 0. 79- 0. 92% of GDP in 2004. Saudi Arabia provided aid equivalent to about 0. 9% of its income. The United States is one of the smallest donors by this measure at about 0. 17 percent of U. S income in 2004, just over half of the 1970 level of 0. 32% and less than one-third of the U. S average during the 1960s. Donors have pledged since the 1960s to devote 0. 7% of their income as aid, most recently at pay for Development Conference in Monterrey, Mexico in March 2002, but only a handful of small donors have achieved this level of aid. The offer to give development aid has to be understood in the context of the gelid War.The speech in which Harry Truman announced the localiseation of NATO is also a fundamental document of development policy in addition, we will provide military advice and equipment to free nations which will cooperate with us in the fear of peace and security. Fourth, we must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress in stock(predicate) for the onward motion and growth of underdeveloped areas. More than half the people of the world are living in conditions progressioning misery. Their food is inadequate. They are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant.Their poverty is a handicap and a threat some(prenominal) to them and to more prosperous areas. For the first time in history, humanity possesses the knowledge and skill to relieve the suffering of these people. 2. 6. 3Specific types of support Project aid fear is given for a specific declare oneself e. g. building materials for a new school. Programme aid Aid is given for a specific sector e. g. funding of the education sector of a country. Budget support A form of programme aid that is directly channeled into the financial system of the recipient country. Sector wide Approaches (SWAPs) A combination of Project aid and Programme aid/Budget Support e. . support for the education sector in a country will include both funding of education projects (like school buildings) and provide funds to maintain them (like school books). Food aid Food is given to countries in urgent need of food supplies, particularly if they have just experienced a natural disaster. Un fasten Aid The country receiving the aid can spend the money as they chose. It improves the governments inter-temporal fiscal balance. Tied aid The aid must be used to purchase products from the country that donated it or a speci fied group of countries.It always lead to deterioration, thus suggesting a potential tradeoff between consumer welfare and government solvency in the latter case. (Chatterjee and Turnovsky2005) Technical assistance enlightened personnel, such as doctors are moved into developing countries to assist with a program of development. Can be both programme and project aid. OECD Categories The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Developments Development Assistance Committee puts foreign aid into three categories Official Development Assistance (ODA) is the largest, consisting of aid provided by donor governments to low- and middle- income countries. Official Aid (OA) is aid provided by governments to richer countries with per capita incomes higher than approximately $9000 for three consequent years and to countries that were formerly part of the Soviet Union or its satellites. Other Official Flows (OFF) Aid which does not fall into the other two categories, either because it is not aimed at development, or it consists of more than 75% loan (rather than grant). 2. 7 POVERTY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH The impact on poverty on economic growth is problematic and is not clear.It is indicated that effective anti-poverty action is voiceless to achieve largely because the poverty problem is multidimensional, complex and location specific deeply rooted into the social fabric and distribution of economic and political power (Tarp, 2000). One implication of these is that donors as well as analysts of the impact of aid on poverty need to be realistic about the severity of the difficulties that are likely to be encountered and the scale of effort inevitable to overcome poverty.Most evaluations have shown that achievements in this area are base at best. In general, it was ready that there is a wide to-do between the stated commitments to poverty reduction and the actual practices of reducing poverty in the field. Most donors have paid little attention to conceptualizatio n and analysis of poverty and have been particularly weak in translating the poverty reduction objective into operational guidance and in their country assistance strategies. Similar pitfall applies to most analysis of the impact of aid on poverty.The main instruments of donor intervention has been a serial publication of ad hoc projects and in these improvements have been observed over time in respect of confederation by beneficiaries and gender sensitivity but few donors have been refer about sustainability. 2. 8FOREIGN AID AND ECONOMIC GROWTH Most foreign aid is designed to meet one or more of four broad economic and development objectives. To stimulate economic growth through building infrastructure, supporting productive sectors such as agriculture, or bringing new ideas and technologies To strengthen education, health, environmental or political systems To support subsistence consumption of food and other commodities, especially during relief operations and humanitarian cr ises To help becalm an economy following economic shocks. Despite these objectives for aid, economic growth has always been the main yardstick used to judge aids effectiveness, with more aid expected to lead to faster growth. scarcely at a broad level, there is no apparent simple relationship between aid and growth. The absence of a simple relationship means that for some observers, it is an evidence of a failure of aid to achieve its basic objectives.But for others, it is misleading, as other factors affect both aid and growth. Not surprisingly, the views on the economic impact of foreign aid on poor countries turn out to be highly divided. Some papers, e. g. Rwabutomize(2008) and Cato Institute (2004)) totally oppose the notion that foreign aid has beneficial effects on developing economies and even go as far as saying they thus hinder growth. Others like Karras (2006), Durbarry, Gemmell &038 Greenaway (2004) and Wangwe (2004) find a positive relationship between the two. Yet a lot of research finds conditional relationships between the two variables.This section gives a summary of the views from the examined relevant and available literature on this subject. 2. 9Economic impact of foreign aid in affirmableness The impact of foreign aid on recipient countries economies has been a subject of research and turn among scholars and policymakers for more than five decades. There are two obvious stands in the literature of foreign aid effectiveness one argues that foreign aid spurs growth and development of the recipient countries while the other opposes this view by arguing that aid crowds out savings and investments and thus slows down economic growth.There is also another stand that proposes that foreign aid has a conditional relationship with growth, accelerating growth only under some certain circumstances. A possible reason for the high variability of opinions on the benefits of foreign aid is that there is no generally accepted theory on the workings of foreign aid. Frameworks like the gap theory have been wide criticized in contemporary research leaving the employed frameworks highly subjective. Simon (1987) offers five criteria for economic aid disbursement. First, the recipient person or nation needs the help.Second, the recipient wants the help. Third, the gift will not have bad effects in the long run on the recipient or others. Fourth, the sympathy will be used more-or-less efficiently rather than largely wastefully or simply to obtain more money in a pyramid scheme. Fifth, the charity will not be fruitless to the giver. In addition, a lot of the conditional relationship between foreign aid and economic development is premised on differentiation of foreign aid categories. For instance, Annen and Kosempel (2007) identify between foreign aid as technical assistance (TA) and non-technical assistance (NTA).They believe that the policies which will be most effective in reducing international income disparities will be the o nes that help reduce the productivity gap, and this is barely what technical assistance is intended to do. They also explained that when foreign aid takes the form of technical assistance, it can have important effects on improving economic conditions in poor countries at least when it is administered efficiently. Chatterjee and Turnovsky (2005) in their work classified foreign aid into tied and untied.They posit that the link between foreign aid, economic growth, and welfare depends crucially on the mechanism through which a particular aid program, whether tied or untied, is absorbed by the recipient economy. 2. 9. 1Dissenting views On the other hand, the Cato Institute (2004) actually gives negative economic impact. In their opinion There is no correlation between aid and growth. Aid that goes into a poor policy environment doesnt work and contributes to debt. Aid conditioned on market reforms has been a failure. Countries that have adopted market-oriented policies have done so because of factors unrelated to aid. There is a strong relationship between economic freedom and growth. Even aid intended to advance market liberalization can produce inapplicable results. Such aid takes the pressure off recipient governments and allows them to postpone, rather than promote, inevitable but politically difficult reforms. easter (2003) challenges the growth gap theory usually used to justify increase in foreign aid. He states that the financing gap model in which aid increases investment and that investment increases economic growth has dubious theoretical foundations and numerous empirical failings.It assumes a steadfast linear relationship between investment and growth over the short to medium term but there are lumbering reasons to doubt whether the incremental capital-output ratio is constant and thus whether the relationship from investment to growth is linear. A second key boldness of the model in which aid fills a financing gap and allows greater in vestment is that aid will actually finance investment rather than consumption. This assumption will hold true only if investment is liquidity-constrained and incentives to invest were favourable.Another competitor of the gap theory is Erixon (2005). He carried out a literature analysis of aid and economic growth by examining case studies of countries who have standard considerable amounts of aid. He also necessitates that the reason countries are poor is not that they lack infrastructure roads, railways, dams, schools or health clinics. Rather, it is because they lack the institutions of the free society property rights, the rule of law, free markets, and limited government. He maintains that even in the face of sound policy, foreign aid fails to have the desired effect.According to him, there is much evidence supporting the view that aid largely has backed political regimes with little interest in growth and development. It would be much more sensible to scale back the levels of aid comfortably provide aid only to governments that are already reforming and agree to continue reforms and make clear that aid will be available only for a strictly limited period. MAmanja &038 Morrissey (2004), in their study contend with foreign aideconomic growth relationships based on the often wrong theoretical assumptions used as a basis for it.With respect to the stipulations of endogenous growth theory, high investment ratios do not unavoidably lead to rapid economic growth the quality of investment, its productivity, existence of appropriate policy, political, and social infrastructure are all determinants of the effectiveness of investment. Time series was used to check out this relationship in the Kenyan economy. They focused on one element of growth and used a multivariate blast on time series data for Kenya over the period 1964 2002 to investigate the growth effects of foreign aid, investment and a measure of international trade.In addition, some op prospect to foreign aid comes from social biases. An example is Mutambara (2008) who claims that although the stated intention is ostensibly to assist the poor economies, most foreign aid benefits the donor countries. The modus operandi has been that the rich West provides financial assistance or loans to poor nations to engage Western consultants or institutions to carry out unsustainable and useless projects on the continent.As a result, there is minimum benefit to the African country while the money is recycled back via western institutions. The Cato Institute (2004) gave its position based on economic freedom. They assert that the greater a countrys economic freedom, the greater its level of prosperity over time. Economic freedom, which includes not only policies, such as free trade and stable money, but also institutions, such as the rule of law and the security of private property rights, does not only increase income.It is also strongly related to improvements in other development indic ators such as longevity, access to safe drinking water, lower corruption, and lower poverty rates. Radelet (2006) examines aid magnitudes and who gives and receives aid. It discusses the multiple motivations and objectives of aid, some of which conflict with each other. It then explores the empirical evidence on the relationship between aid and growth, which is divided between research that finds no relationship and research that finds a positive relationship (at least under certain circumstances).It also examines some of the key challenges in making aid more effective, including the principal-agent problem and the related issue of conditionality, and concludes by examining some of the main proposals for improving aid effectiveness. Karras (2006) investigates the relationship between foreign aid and growth in per capita GDP using annual data from the 1960 to 1997 period for a sample of 71 aid-receiving developing economies. More specific studies like Asiedu and Nandwa (2004) focuse d on whether foreign aid in education has a significant effect on growth.In carrying out their study on the effect of foreign education aid they took into consideration the heterogeneous nature of aid as well as the heterogeneity of aid recipientsthey disaggregated the aid data into primary, secondary and higher education, and ran bring out regressions for low income and middle income countries. Neanidis and Varvarigos (2005) examined the effects of aid transfers and their degree of volatility (different kinds of variability) on economic growth. They conducted regression analysis for a panel of 74 aid-recipient countries over the time period from 1972 to 1998.Bhandari et al. (2007) carried out a region specific study the effectiveness of foreign aid and foreign direct investment in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. They used a model that includes the dig force, capital stock, foreign aid and foreign direct investment, and is estimated using pooled annual time series data from 1993 to 2002. Before carrying out the estimation, the time series properties of the data were diagnosed and an error- discipline model was developed and estimated using a fixed-effects estimator.Inanga and Mandah (2008) examines the role of two foreign aid financing agencies, Enterprise Development Fund (EDF) and Export Development Programme (EDP), in promoting Zambias economic growth in a country study. They assessed and analysed the impact of each of them on the growth and development of different sectors of the Zambian economy. The sector impact analysis include manufacturing, agriculture, transport, and institutional capacities.Al Khaldi (2008) analyses the trend and impact of foreign aid on the economic development of Jordan during the period 1990-2005 using for this purpose different statistical techniques. Chatterjee and Turnovsky (2005) introduced two crucial aspects of this mechanism that have been absent from previous work the importance of th e endogeneity of labor supply as an additional margin through which foreign aid may impact on macroeconomic motion and the role played by the interaction of labor supply and public capital and externalities associated with public capital accumulation in determining an economys response to a foreign aid shock.They suggest that when donors nail down on whether a particular aid program should be tied to an investment activity, careful attention should be paid to the recipients opportunities for substitution in production, the elasticity of labour supply, and production externalities. It is perfectly possible for a tied transfer to have a presumably unintentional adverse effect on the recipient economy, if that economy is structurally different from what the donor perceived. Durbarry, Gemmell and Greenaway (2004) assessed the impact of foreign aid on growth for a large sample of developing countries.They used an augmented Fischer-Easterly type model and estimated this using both cros s-section and panel data techniques. This allowed them to identify not only the ceteris paribus growth effects of aid using an established condition set of policy variables, but also to assess the robustness of this set to the inclusion of aid, and other forms of, investment finance among the growth determinants. Annen and Kosempel (2007) tested the hypothesis that the effectiveness of aid depends on its level of fragmentation.The study presented a theoretical growth model for a small open economy that was fit of identifying the appropriate specification required for an aid-growth regression. 2. Empirical findings Annen and Kosempel (2007) found that non technical aid (NTA) has no statistically significant impact on growth but technical aid (TA) has a positive and significant impact, except in countries where it is highly fragmented. A possible explanation for this result is that the savings rate applied to NTA is low, and therefore most of these resources are used to finance consu mption instead of investment.Although the policy interaction term for NTA was found to be positive, as expected the partial impact of NTA conditional on policy was found not to be statistically significant for any policy level. When aid takes the form of TA our results showed that it has a strong positive and statistically significant impact on economic performance. Specifically, their estimates show that for the average developing economy a 25% increase in TA will lead to about a quarter percentage point increase in its yearly growth rate.Their estimates indicate that when the level of fragmentation is high to a higher place 73%, the partial impact of TA on growth is nought or even negative, depending on the estimation procedure. Asiedu and Nandwa (2004) also gave a conditional aid growth relationship. They report that the effect of aid varies by income as well as by the type of aid. These results underscore the importance of the heterogeneity of aid flows as well as the hetero geneity of recipient countries when analyzing the effect of aid on growth.Aid depends on the level of development of the recipient country (low and middle income) as well as the level of education at which aid is being targeted (primary, secondary or higher). Aid in primary education enhances growth in low income countries but aid in post-primary education has no significant effect. For middle income countries, aid in primary education and secondary education has an adverse effect on growth but aid in higher education enhances growth.Thus, their results highlighting the importance of taking into account the heterogeneity of aid and the heterogeneity of the recipient countries when analyzing aid-growth relationships. Sound policy is another condition given for aid to be beneficial. In the view of Al Khaldi (2008), policies are also important in the effectiveness of the foreign capital inflow, as aid has a more positive impact on growth with good fiscal, monetary and trade policies.I n the presence of poor policies, on the other hand, aid has no positive effect on growth. Accordingly, there is a need of not only good policies but also the implementation of these policies as well as the proper monitoring of the aid -utilizing projects is necessary in order to avoid the mis-utilization and the mismanagement of the foreign capital resources. However, harmonise to MAmanja &038 Morrissey (2004), aid in the form of net external loans is found to have a significant negative impact on long run growth. close investment relates to government investment and imports negatively, but positively to foreign aid though they note that the negative association between aid and growth may be due to their use of aid loans rather than grants.. occult investment has been a consistently strong determinant of growth both in the short- and long- run. The implication here is that in order to stimulate and sustain economic growth in Kenya, policy makers need to pay scalelike attention to factors that determine private investment.However, some findings disregard these conditions and oppose the benefits of foreign aid altogether. The results from Bhandari et al. (2007) indicate that an increase in the stock of domestic capital and inflow of foreign direct investment are significant factors that positively affect economic growth in these countries. Foreign aid did not seem to have any significant effect on real GDP. Rwabutomize (2008) reports that empirical findings reveal that foreign aid has no impact on economic growth amongst the low-income economies under investigation within the Sub-Sahara Africa region from 1990-2004.He concludes that the growth process of poor economies have not benefited from the official development assistance (foreign aid) inflows and increasing aid will not have a positive impact of growth either. Thus these economies should rely on other development resources other than foreign aid such as their domestic savings and appraise revenues. Ra delet (2006) came up with equivalent conclusions. Aid can give bad governments in power for too long, and can undermine incentives for saving, tax collection, and private sector production.Aid relationships are made much more difficult by a complex chain of principal-agent problems that weaken information flows, introduce myriad motivations for different actors, and make monitoring and accountability more difficult. Inanga and Mangah (2008) in their study support these findings. According to them, although Zambia has, on the average, received aid of about US$ 514 million annually over the past three decades, its per capita income has declined from US$1,251 in he early 1970s to about US$ 600 in the late 1990s. They concluded that although it may be difficult to separate the effects of foreign aid finance from those of other growth-inducing factors, efficient and effective utilization of foreign aid finance can contribute to growth in a stable macroeconomic environment. As stated al ready, not all findings opposed the notion of beneficial foreign aid. The results from Karras (2006) show that the effect of foreign aid on economic growth is positive, permanent, statistically signi? ant, and good for you(p) raising foreign aid by $20 per person of the receiving country results in a permanent increase in the growth rate of real GDP per capita by approximately 0. 16 per cent. Using an substitute foreign-aid measure, a permanent increase in aid by 1 per cent of the receiving economies GDP permanently raises the per capita growth rate by 0. 14 to 0. 26 per cent. Wangwe (2009) states that a survey of three generations of empirical work found a consistent pattern of results. It found that aid increases aggregate savings, aid increases investment and there is a positive relationship between aid and growth in reduced form models.In Durbarry, Gemmell and Greenaway (2004) results vary according to income level, levels of aid allocation and geographical location. They rep ort a positive coefficient on foreign aid as defined by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (FAIDOECD) in 1993 as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP), significant at 10%. Point estimates indicate that raising the aid/GDP (or domestic savings/GDP) ratio by one percentage point raises the growth rate by about 0. 10 percentage points.Finally, adopting an alternative measure of foreign aid aid per capita yields similar results, confirming a positive and significant impact on growth. display panel data also yields similar results. And lastly according to Neanidis and Varvarigos (2005), on the one hand, devoting aid inflows into productive public spending promotes growth while the related volatility has a damaging effect. On the other hand, the non-productive use of aid transfers has an adverse effect on growth while their volatility is growth-enhancing. They proffer that the general onclusion emerging from their analysis can be summarized as follows when aid is used productively (unproductively) it has, on average, a positive (negative) effect on growth while its respective volatility has a negative (positive) growth effect. Our results propose that recipient countries should allocate the aid they receive on the most productive uses, while donors should make sure that aid provision is the least erratic possible. 2. 10 DEFINITION OF TERMS Economic growth For the purpose of this study, economic growth will be represented by the annual Gross Domestic Product at current factor cost. press force Labour in this context consists of the number of people aged 15 and over who are employed (that is those who currently have jobs). Individuals who do not fall into either of these groups such as the unemployed, retired people and deter workers are not included in the calculation of the labour force. Unemployment The International Labour Organization (ILO) defines unemployment as the proportion of the labour force which was available for wo rk but did not work for at least one hour in the week preceding the survey period. However, the definition used here is that of the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), Nigeria.The NBS defines unemployment as the proportion of the labour force that is available for work but did not work for at least 39 hours in the week preceding the survey period. Foreign Aid is the economic help provided to communities of countries due to the occurrence of a humanitarian crisis or for the achievement of a socioeconomic objective. Foreign direct investment (FDI) FDI is an investment in real assets where real assets consist of physical things such as factories, land, capital goods, infrastructure and inventories. CHAPTER THREE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY . 1INTRODUCTION The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between foreign aid and economic growth in Nigeria. This section starts with a theoretical framework then continues with a description of the model to be used for quantit ative analysis. The regression is run using Ordinary least squares technique. The theoretical framework of this study is taken from theories, concepts, views and models. 3. 2THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This study uses the theoretical framework employed by Ogbuaku, Adebisi and Feridun (2006) based on the neoclassical growth model by Barro (1991).It is based on a small open economy version of the Solow (1956)-Swan (1956) growth model. The decision to study foreign aid in an open economy, as opposed to a closed, is three fold. First, most of the economies that receive foreign aid must reasonably be considered small and open. Second, to the extent that international credit markets are imperfect, some forms of foreign aid can have a positive impact on the poor. Third, in our empirical work we provide statistical evidence to suggest that greater international openness and access to credit stimulates economic growth. The two-gap model can also be employed.The first gap is the gap between the amo unt of investment necessary to attain a certain growth rate and the available domestic saving. Easterly (2003) examined the investment-savings gap. It goes thus economic growth depends on investment as a share of GDP, adjusted by a factor that reveals whether investment is of high or poor quality. The amount of investment will be the sum of domestic savings and foreign aid. The model of the financing gap approach thus makes two key assumptions. First, it assumes the above stable linear relationship between investment and growth over the short to medium run.This assumption grows out of a Leontief-style production function with fixed requirements for capital and labour per unit of output. A second key assumption of the model in which aid fills a financing gap and allows greater investment is that aid will actually finance investment rather than consumption. This assumption will hold true only if investment is liquidity-constrained and incentives to invest were favourable. If the cause of low investment is due to poor incentives to invest, then aid will not increase investment. (Easterly, 2003) . 3 RESTATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS H0 Foreign aid has no significant impact on the reduction of poverty and hence the economic growth of Nigeria. H1 Foreign aid has a significant impact on the reduction of poverty and the economic growth of Nigeria. 3. 4 RESEARH DESIGN 3. 4. 1MODEL SPECIFICATION This study uses the theoretical framework employed by Ogbuaku, Adebisi and Feridun (2006) based on the neoclassical growth model by Barro (1991). They specify a simple model of poverty and globalization as follows POV= ? 0+1 ? TRADE+ ? FDI+ (1) This model is augmented to include the foreign aid element thus POV = ? 0+ ? 1TRADE+ ? 2FDI + ? 3AID+ (2) Where POV is the yearly average per capita income trade is import + export /gdp fdi is foreign direct investment aid is foreign aid is the stochastic error term 2. SOURCES OF DATA The analysis will be based on time series data of A ID, TRADE, FDI and POV for the Nigerian economy for the period 1981 2007. These are secondary data collected from publications of Central Bank of Nigeria such as statistical bulletin and annual reports. 4. METHOD OF DATA epitomeAs stated in the introduction to this study, the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method of regression analysis is used in this research work. The OLS is one of the most commonly employed and most important methods in estimating relationships in econometrics. Furthermore, to contain the problems associated with time series data, a unit root test the increase Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test, is employed to test for stationarity. Other methods applied include Johansen co-integration and error rectification model. 3. 5. 1Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test is used to test the stationarity in time series.Stationarity refers to the constancy in mean and variance of time series over a period of time. This will enable us to know if there i s co-movement in time series in long run equilibrium. It is the augmented version of the Dickey-Fuller test for a larger and more complicated set of time series model. Stationarity test reveals the presence or absence of random-walk (unit root) in regression analysis. If the time series are non-stationary it means that our regression is misbegotten and as such estimates cannot be used to predict future values. The time series can then be adjusted in order to make them stationary.The augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) statistic used in the test is a negative number. The more negative it is, the stronger the rejections of the hypothesis that there is a unit root at some level of confidence. 3. 5. 2Johansen Co-integration This especially has been developed to overcome the problems of spurious regression which is associated with non-stationary time series data, in such instances, econometric results may not be ideal for policy making. The theory of co-integration arises out of the need to integrate short run dynamics with long run equilibrium.In cases where the data series exhibit the presence of unit roots, short-run dynamics properties of the model can only be captured in an error correction model when the existence of co-integration has been established. On this note, if variable are co-integrated, it shows that such variable possess the capacity to reach equilibrium in the long run. 5. LIMITATIONS TO THE STUDY Using economic growth as a measure of the influence of foreign aid on poverty in Nigeria assumes that there is adequate distribution of wealth in the Nigerian economy such that gains in economic output is transmitted to poor areas.It is possible that this is not the case. In addition, it is necessary to note that the use of regression techniques always comes with limitations. The first is the common warning that correlation does not mean causation. Therefore, even if a relationship is established between the examined variables, this does not guarantee that the occurrence of one necessitates the occurrence of the other. CHAPTER FOUR EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF DATA 4. 1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the statistical data gathered during the course of this research work is subjected to investigation and analysis.The chapter starts with the brief explanation of various criteria for decision making, followed by the analysis of the static regression equation. In order to test for the presence of unit root (i. e. , spuriousness) in the static regression equation, stationarity test would be conducted using Augmented Dickey Fuller Test (ADF), while co-integration test using Johansen Co-integration test would also be conducted in order to establish the long-run co-movement among the variables. Finally, the error correction model will be used to test the relationships between the variables. . DECISION MAKING CRITERIA The following criteria for decision making are used in the analysis. Coefficient of determination (R2) The R-squa
Saturday, January 26, 2019
meshwork mesh has become a bear-sized part of our life these days becaexercising of the many things that we tooshie get from it from the in vogue(p) saucilys and research findings to self- expression. We too get to learn proficient approximately the current trends in our profession and instantly become fashion chic. It also updates us of our favorite basketball tea, and thespians. Truly, it becomes a great help in the workplace, education, entertainment, wellness c ar, and communion. However, the meshwork has also served as a venue for the infringement of copyright. Everyone has the retrieve to information which makes it al about im practicable to protect copyright. This for of piracy is squargonly general on the web. Aside from this, the proliferation of pornographic materials is undeniably one of the alarming things that has brought about by the Internet.It does not only corrupt the minds of the boyish state that be exposed to them but also it paves the way for t he degradation of human dignity. It also strains the moral make up of society. The Internet also alienates the person from his favorable self. While or so hark back that talking to loved ones through the calculator screens allows or offers the same satisfaction of brotherly needs just the like engaging in conversations face-to-facely, there really is a big inconsistency between the virtual self and the loving self. This could further lead to dependance which could hamper a persons way of living and those who atomic number 18 directly in contact with him. The Internet was intended to be apply for military purposes. However, due to its versatility and applicability, we project it as how it is purposed today. It exists as our relay link when used properly and our foe when misused.THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTERNET ON packS SOCIAL AND PSYCHOL Uploaded by nikolovska1 (149) on Jul 8, 2007THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTERNET ON PEOPLES SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL REALITIESThe influence of the Internet has caused a change in the way we communicate, learn and shop. The Internet is probably around famous for the ability to spread information, fact or fiction. We were once throttle to currents editors of a local paper, then to national cable news. at once anyone can search the globe, visit local papers in overseas countries, and see the views of all sides. This ease of information has also brought with it a tumescent do of hoaxes, money schemes, and fallacies. There is no question that easy advance to the Internet, like the introduction of mail service and the invention of the telephone, has changed the nature of piles connection to others in their social world. Mail made possible connections among people without physical proximity, and the telephone facilitated communication among distant people, making fast connections possible across long distancies.But has this communication revolution changed the vestal nature of interpersonal and group processes? On the one hand, since the primary use of the Internet is communication, some people might speculate that the Internet leave have positive social consequences in peoples frequent lives because it increases the frequency and quality of interpersonal communications among people. People with easy rile to others would feel better connected and much strongly supported by others, leading to happiness and engagement in families, organizations, communities, and society to a greater extent generally. But, on the other hand, the ease of electronic communication may lead to weaker social ties, because people have less reason to leave their fellowships and in reality act face to face with other people. The Internet allows people to more easily work from their home, to form and sustain friendships and until now romantic attacments from their home, to bank from their home, to voter turnout and engage in political and social issue based discussions with others (from home). In this variety of slipway, Internet communications can potentially displace opposite communications.I think this point is important because psychologists in many researches have described and proved such face to face and telephone connections as being of higher quality, when viewed in terms of their contribution to satisfaction and well-being. cultivation a seriees of longitudinal and experimental studies (e.x. McKenna, Green, and Gleason), who test a theory of kind formation on the Internet, these researchers directly adress the argument that the psychological quality of Internet social interaction is lower than is the psychological quality of traditional personal interaction. Consider my own use. Ive received several e-mail messages in the past hour. My boyfriend confirms the dinner for tonight. Even though it is weekend, my coleagues send me questions about the pending exam expects a quick answer.So does some graduate student from Europe, that I recently met on MySpace with an urgent request f or a letter of recommendation. My friend Ksenija sends me an IM to tell me the latest news about her new love. And so on and so on I assume that I am also living a virtual life, and whats the most interesting of all, all of my friends online, atomic number 18 also my friends in real life. And if they werent that in the past, I somehow managed to bring my cyber friends into my real life, so I could here in my real life enable real communication, real face-to-face talks, real exchange of emotions, feeligs of happiness, satisfaction and well-being. Id say for me, the Internet is a great new way for doing octogenarian things. So, what else conclusion can I bring except the one that Internet life cannot stand on itself without real-life communication. It is simple If we understand the qualities of face-to-face communication that influence the impact of such communication on people and their social interaction, we would be able to predict the probable influence of any new communication engineering science.However, researchers show that people sooner or later permute their cyber contacts into more traditional face-to-face, the same as I do. People use the Internet, in other words to help them achieve their real-life goals. And rather than technologys changing peoples social and psychological reality, in other words, people change their use of technology to facilitate their debut of a desired social reality. Internet users should closely examine their behavior, to run across that excessive time online will not negatively impact their personal well-being. We shouldnt throw our computers out the window, but neither should we charge on blindly into complete dependence on the Internet. As with many things in life, it seems that moderation and balance are key to maximizing the Internets positive effect.The Internet has provided a new medium with which children and teens can yob their peers. While no direct physical harm can actually be preceptore, the rise of Cyber Bullying can be much more dodgy than the bullying that takes place on school grounds. The Internet provides a false sense of safety and anonymity, which means that more and more children are likely to engage in ridiculing their peers and spreading vicious rumors. Children that would never inspiration of belittling one of their classmates face to face wont think twice about doing so in a chat room, on their MySpace page or in a blog. How does the expression go? Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me? As we all retire, this simply isnt true. Hurtful words and false accusations can do a world of hurt and can sometimes fifty-fifty lead to physical harm, especially among people who are young and impressionable. The Internet allows users of all ages, not just young people, the opportunity to reinvent themselves and their image. If they dont feel accepted at school they may go looking for acceptance on the net, and as we all know, for young people acceptan ce often comes at the expense of others. What makes Cyber Bullying all the more problematic is the fact that it can be difficult to regulate.Teachers and other mental faculty are present at school to observe students behavior and hopefully put an end to bullying when they witness it. However, more and more young people are being given unlimited and unsupervised get to to the Internet, which is more vast a place that we can imagine. Parents who arent watching what their children are doing on the Internet, whether its because they are technologically challenged, incredibly naive, or just negligent, have no idea what sorts of behavior their children are engaging in. When most parents finally wise up, they are shocked and appalled at what sites junior-grade Ryan has been visit or who precious little Jamie has been conversing with. Possibly the most dangerous aspect of the Internet is the way that it encourages dangerous and hurtful behavior.Young girls are praised for posting inappr opriate and revealing photographs of themselves and ridicule and rumors among classmates are answered and supported with even more hurtful behavior. It is up to society as a consentient to help bring this problem of children and the Internet under control. The Internet is a wonderful tool, dont get me wrong, but it is very vexed to regulate and it is very easy for children too obtain a non-finite of images and information that should not be seen by their impressionable eyes. Unfortunately, many parents are naive to this problem and refuse to believe that their children would get involved in anything dangerous or inappropriate on the Internet. Programs and other tools are for sale to help parents monitor their childrens Internet usage, but these alone are not enough.Young people today are more likely to know more about these devices than their parents, and often can find ways to bypass them. Therefore, you also need to be limiting the total amount of time that your children spend on the Internet each day and know what sort of access and supervision is taking place when they are visiting friends. Never, ever, allow children to have a computer in their room or their own laptop. The computer that your children use should always be in a main and heavily trafficked room of the house, where you can keep a wakeful eye on their activity. It is up to you to help make this world a safer place for your children and you cannot underestimate the danger that is lurking in your very own home every time they sit down in front of the computer.