Sunday, March 31, 2019
How to Maintain well be mystifyd Laboratory get alongGood laboratoryoratory work up outIntroductionGood laboratory serve yield principles which give structure to the studies of which they are planned, performed, monitored, recorded, reported and archived. These studies are undertaken to generate entropy by which the hazards and risks to users, consumers including the environment, hindquarters be assessed for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, veterinary medicines, industrial chemicals, cosmetics, food and feed additives and biocides.PurposeGood laboratory practice provides results from the necessitate which are reliable and can be used for making risk/ preventive assessments.The Good laboratory practice regulations provide an interpretation of the termino poundy used in defining the elements of GLP. here are few frameworks employment plan this is a document which shows wherefore an experiment is being carried out and how it should be performed in order to concur with Go od laboratory practice.Study Director- dealing with Good laboratory teachableStudy personnel- alone the people that carry out the experimentsStudy knowledgeability Date Date that the resume first signs the teach planStudy Plan Amendment an intended change to study plan after the initial study construe modular operating procedures sufficiently fine work instructions to allow the procedure to be repeated exactly the same(p) elbow room each time by some(prenominal) operator.Findings unprocessed materialsRaw materials are reagents used in processing. They are classified regarding identification of samples for exampleEnzymes which are used in the study.Storage instructionsExpiry attend shade e.g. purity of a chemicalSource of the material, preparation date and stabilityCell cultureEquipment maintenance and normalisationAll the equipment mustiness(prenominal)iness be clean to function reliably.For each piece of equipment there should beA number for identification of the a pparatus.A calibration check (should be traceable to national or international standards)Validation that equipment fir for social functionStaff should be trained to use equipmentOperating and parametersClean equipment data logging and trackingTransportDelivering chemicals by roads or by train throw the possibilities of accidents. If there is a leak it could cause a spillage which can cause cars to slide and hit each new(prenominal) which could potentially lead to an explosion which could cause fatalities as well as damage to the nearby surroundings.Customer servicesThe aim is to build up a trust between clients and the go with. Any reported problem from any client should be followed up and dealt with to the soaringest standard possible.Labelling, storage, packingAll the reagents must be fully labelled withName of reagentWho made it?Date the contingent was preparedExpiry dateStorage conditionsHazard labelsName of the company or institutionIf the reagent is not labelled there i s no utter of what it isStoring/Packing of dataMaterials need to be stored includeThe study plan, bare-assed data, samples of test and reference items, specimens and final report of each studyThe records of all inspection performed by the step assurancePersonal recordsRecords and reports of the maintenance and calibration of equipmentValidation documentation for computerise systemsSOPsEnvironmental monitoring recordsThe materials retain should be properly indexed and movement of information should be noted.TrainingFor high quality GLP training, you need experienced Course Directors. Each Course Directors have to be from senior level scientific, regulatory and management positions in a variety of organisations and industries.ProceduresSOPs stands for Standard operating producersSOPs is a operator which in the turnout of products fit for their intended use. All the operators must be aware of all the relevant SOPs and implement them correctly.If there is a failure carrying them out correctly it means that it can lead to the production of products harmful, and potentially lethal to customers.Implementing of quality standards for example what must happen in a work place to ensure compliance?Everyone in the lab should know what they are doing. In implementing Good Lab Practice the study director is the single point of control for a given study and has the responsibility for its overall conduct and finial report.Standard Operating proceduresA key fruit aspect of the study personnels role in ensuring trusty lab practice compliance in their work is the writing and executing of standard operating procedures. These are work instruction, which are accurately enlarge to allow the procedure to be repeated exactly the same way each time by any operatorInternal mentoringThose who have been in long term employment would be expected to throw out and support new and younger staff members. Giving guidance where it is needed.Quality assurance (QA)Quality assurance refer s to all actions necessary to provide sanction that the product or service will satisfy the prescribed requisite for quality. QA involves the setting up of a quality system, and overseeing that this system is being enforced correctly.In short, quality assurance does exactly what it says. By considering all the aspects of the business enterprise process it ensures that the work being done will meet the required standard.The responsibilities of the Quality Assurancemaintain copies of all approved study plans and Standard Operating Procedures in use in the test facility and have access to an up-to-date copy of the master scheduleVerify that the study plan contains the information required for compliance with these Principles of Good Laboratory Practice. arrangement of primary dataLog Book is a primary fount of raw data in any process. It provides evidence which may be used in a court law it might alike be sued in patent applications or used as a cross reference in auditing work.m onitor temperatures in incubators or fridgesMonitoring temperature is very important in lab.For the operation of fridges and freezers we need to consider what temperature should it evaporate at ?The required limit e.g. 4oC +/- -2oCAll fridges used for the storage of medicines must have the temperature monitored daily to ensure the correct storage of those medicines.Maintenance of log bookBound note book should only be used.The raft writing should be clear so that operators can understand it. zesty or black ink must be used in order to prevent fading and allow documents to be photocopied easily.All pages should be numbered to prevent pages being removed.All data should be recorded.All data should be verify through the use of signatures and witnesses.Correction should be verified by being signed and dated.Blank lines or pages should be pass over out with a diagonal line signed and dated.All detailed information about instruments, samples, materials, and equipment should be included .The logbook should be stored in a punch location.Regulator Bodies which are involved in ensuring compliance with the chosen standard are the governments and the trade association.Inspectors carry out biennial inspections of all labs at bottom the UK that perform regulatory studies that require to be conducted to Good Lab PracticeAfter a satisfactory inspection by GLPMA, be issued with a statement of GLP compliance.The GLPMA provides information to trade association and other Governments departments on aspects of GLP.RegulatorsGovernmentsThe Governments are responsible for enforcing the regulations in GLP on the behalf of the UK Monitoring AuthorityMHRA Medicines and Healthcare products regulativeVeterinary Medicines Directorate (DEFRA)Pesticides safety Directorate (DEFRA)Food standard result for example feed addictives, novel and foods, food additives and food contaminants )Health and safety executiveEnvironment AgencyTrade associationsMonitoring compliance connectedness of Bri tish pharmaceutical perseveranceAssociation of consultant bioscience industryCrop protection associationBritish Association of research quality AssuranceChemical aspects of Toxicology Discussion Group.Association of independent research examination organisationsUnited Kingdom accreditation service.
Saturday, March 30, 2019
blood platelet Count Of Children With breakb unitary pyrexia fever Biology EssayINTRODUCTION dandy fever is a mosquito-borne infection that in recent decades has become a major(ip) multinational public health concern. dandy fever fever is found in equatorial and sub-tropical regions around the world, predominantly in urban and semi-urban beas.Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), a potenti all toldy lethal complication, was front recognized in the fifties during breakbone fever epidemics in the Philippines and Thailand. To sidereal day DHF affects most Asiatic opineries and has become a leading cause of infirmaryization and d feed inh among children in the region. there are four distinct, but closely related, viruses that cause dengue. Recovery from infection by one provides lifelong immunity against that virus but confers only fond(p) and transient protection against subsequent infection by the other terce viruses. There is good evidence that sequential infection increas es the risk of develop DHF.The incidence of dengue has posen dramatically around the world in recent decades. Some 2.5 billion people two fifths of the worlds population are instantaneously at risk from dengue. WHO currently estimates there whitethorn be 50 million dengue infections worldwide every year.The disease is now endemic in more than 100 countries in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, atomic number 34 Asia and the Western Pacific. South-east Asia and the Western Pacific are the most mischievously affected. Before 1970 only baseball club countries had experienced DHF epidemics, a number that had change magnitude more than four-fold by 1995. Not only is the number of cases change magnitude as the disease is spreading to new areas, but explosive outbreaks are occurring. fit in to government figures 15,061 cases of the disease in the Philippines were reported in the first six-spot months of the year. The increase in the number of dengue cases may be att ributed to the constantly changing climate brought by global warming as rise as congestion in urban areas. The biggest increase in the domain was seen in Metro Manila, where there was an almost 200 percent increase. fit to the Department of Health, Southern Mindanao, there is an expected increase in dengue cases in the region because of the onset of the rainy season. About six-percent increase in dengue cases was recorded during the first quarter of the year compared to the same rate of flow last year. Davao City so far has the highest dengue incidence, with 371 cases recorded in the first quarter. During the same period last year, there were 352 cases recorded in the city.The durian is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio and the Malvaceae family. wide known and revered in Southeast Asia as the king of fruits, the durian is distinctive for its large size, unique odour, and formidable thorn-covered husk. The fruit can grow as large as 30centimetres (1 2in) long and 15centimetres (6in) in diameter, and it typically weighs one to threekilograms (2 to 7lb). Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the food colour of its husk green to brown, and its flesh pale yellow to red, depending on the species.There are 30 recognised Durio species, at least nine of which produce edible fruit. Durio zibethinus is the only species available in the international market other species are sold in their local region.Studies perplex shown different uses of durian such as A. lipid Lowering movement Lipid entrapment property of polysaccharide gel (PG) extracted from fruit-hulls of durian (Durio zibethinus Murr. Cv. Mon-Thong). Results suggest that PG from fruit-hulls of durian may be a potential dietary fiber/ medicinal accoutrement for a blood lipid / cholesterol lowering deed. B.Hyperthermic Effect / Paracetamol fundamental interaction Believed to have body-warming properties with concerns on consumption with paracetamol. Rat subscribe showed no strong body temperature elevation. Rats receiving a durian-paracetamol combination showed a momentous drop in body temperature. No mechanism for toxicity was identified. C.Antibacterial / Wound Healing Effect (1) Polysaccharide gel extracted from fruit-hulls of durian seems to have a beneficial impression on wound healing in a pig study.(2) germicidal effect of polysaccharide gel was clearly demonstrated against S. aureus and E. coli. Study showed intensify wound healing. D.Phenolic Content / Antioxidant Effect Study showed the durian cultivars high bioactivity and fit polyphenols were the main contributors to the overall antioxidant capacity and provides a source of nutritional supplement.Today, Dengue Fever and Dengue hemorrhagic Fever affect most Asian countries and has become a leading cause of hospitalization in children (about 500,00 cases distributively year) and death. Until now, there is no special(prenominal) treatment on dengue fever. collectable to this, a signif icant number of families of patients use different alternative medicines which do not have evidence for cure in the hope of increasing the platelet count of the patient. One of these is the use of D. zibethinus Murr, but its efficacy is still unkown thus the purpose of the study.DEFINITION OF TERMSDengue Fever a benign syndrome caused by several arthropod-borne viruses, is characterized by biphasic fever, myalgia or arthralgia, rash, leukopenia, and lymphadenopathyDengue haemorrhagic Fever a puckish, often fatal, febrile disease caused by dengue viruses. It is characterized by capillary permeability, abnormalities of hemostasis, and, in severe cases, a protein-losing take aback syndrome (dengue shock syndrome)Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever graduation I heraldic bearing of fever, non-specific constitutional symptoms, such as anorexia, vomiting, abdominal pain and positive compression bandage testDengue Hemorrhagic Fever commemorate II symptoms and signs of Grade I plus spontaneo us bleeding mucocutaneous, gastrointestinalDengue Hemorrhagic Fever Grade III symptoms and signs of Grade II with more severe bleeding plus evidences of circulatory failure violaceous, cold, clammy skin, restlessness, weak to compressible pulses, narrowing of pulse pressure to 20mmHg or less, or hypotensionDengue Hemorrhagic Fever Grade IV or Dengue Shock Syndrome symptoms and signs of Grade III but shock is usually refractory or irreversible and associated with massive bleedingOBJECTIVESGeneral ObjectiveThis study aims to determine the effect of Durio zibethinus Murr (durian) on the platelet count of pediatric patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Grades I and II.Specific ObjectivesTo identify the specific component of durian that is capable of increasing the platelet count of dengue patients.To determine the mechanism of action of the active component of durian.To identify significant relationship between the increase of platelet count and using up of durian. methodologyStudy DesignRandomized controlled, double-blinded studyStudy Setting tete-a-tete Tertiary HospitalStudy SubjectsInclusion CriteriaChildren ages 6 months old to 18 years old diagnosed with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever grades I and II.Parents/guardians of the subjects who signed the certain consent.Exclusion CriteriaChildren ages 6 months old to 18 years old diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever III and dengue shock syndrome.Dengue patients who had undergone blood transfusion.Dengue patients who do not eat durian or unable to tolerate the smell of durian.Respondents who developed wilful gastrointestinal side effects during the course of the study, such as nausea, vomiting, looseness of the bowels and dyspepsia.Parents/guardians who did not sign the informed consent.Description of InterventionsPatients included in the study will be started with intravenous fluids using Isotonic solutions (D5 LR, D5 NSS/D5 0.9% NaCl) at 3 5 cc/kgBW/hr. Patients were then r andomly selected to receive durian decoction (experimental group) and evaporated draw (control group). Decoction will be given three times a day from day of diagnosis to day2 afebrile.Outcome measuresPatients data were collected and recorded. Serial platelet monitoring was done every 6 hours, others were every 8 hours and any(prenominal) on a once a day basis during their hospital stay. Patients are also monitored for possible side effects.Data CollectionAn informed consent has been signed by parents or guardians of the subjects who were included in the study. Socio demographic data were noted (e.g. age and sex). Clinical data as salutary as the sign laboratory results were noted. Individuals are randomly selected into two groups, one with the Durian decoction, and the other with evaporated milk. Patients diagnosed with Dengue fever, Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Grades I and II will be selected and observed for the duration of hospital stay.The initial and succeeding platelet count were noted during the introduction of the decoction. Once a day platelet monitoring of all subjects is enough to collect data, provided that it is all taken at the same time. The side effects related to the intake of decoction were all be noted.Preparation of DecoctionScrapings of durian fruit will be obtained thus removing the fruits seed. __gram of scrapings will be obtained, diluted with __ml of water. __ml of sugar is added to taste. All ingredients is position in a blender and mixed well to obtain a syrup solution.Administration of the decoctionThe decoction will be given to patients with platelet count Dosage 3mg/kg/day
Application of Systems Theory in mixer scarperSystems in PracticeIntroductionThe coupled Kingdom Children act as 1989 (HMSO, 1989) sets forrader alone baby birdc be law as lots(prenominal) relates to pincerren that ar creation accommodated by a Local Authority. At the core of the Children Act ar the beliefs that clawren are served best when they are in their own homes (Devon County Council, 2007a). Additionally, the core beliefs of the Act are that the churls welfare is of the utmost importance, that the childs parents should stay involved in each and all legal proceedings concerning them, and that such a course of action be avoided if possible (Devon County Council, 2007a). It, the Act, besides holds that child welfare is to be promoted, and that children should stay within their families unless unavoidable (Devon County Council, 2007a). in conclusion the ineluctably of the child taking into account factors such as race, religion, farming as fountainhead as langu jump on represend critical facets. In those instances when a child lights under the care of a topical anesthetic self-assurance, it is the office of the local authority to see to the call for of children in these instances (Devon County Council, 2007b).The earlier represents authoritative background considerations with regard to the cheer care, and the principles underlying such. These basics represent the foundations of any encourageing care, arrangement, and related applications. This examination shall review a case make on cordial wrench system to delve into the manner in which the application of possibleness, and ideas as they relate to free radical sprain on companionable drub blueprint.Hammond (2003, p. xi) indicates that the concept of trunks is a theoretical frame utilization in the bodily sciences, the life sciences, and the cordial sciences. The systems possibility is generally acknowledged to have begun with quatern tidy sum, Bertalanffy, Bouldin g, Gerard, and Rapoport, who met in 1954 at the Stanford Center for Advanced Study in the behavioral Sciences (Hammond, 2003, p. xiii). They founded the Society for General Systems Research, which has since cash in ones chips the International Society for the Systems Sciences (International Society for the Systems Sciences , 2007). The systems possibleness is the transdisciplinary abbreviate of the abstract brass of phenomena, in a context of use that is fencesitter of their substance, type, or spatial or temporal scale of origination (Principia Cybernetica Web, 2007). The systems supposition investigates both the principles popular to all complex entities as well as models which drop be use to describe them (Principia Cybernetica Web, 2007). In the context of accessible work, the systems theory, in its broadest sense, represents the interdisciplinary study concerning human life, along with accessible organization as represented by systems (Principia Cybernetica Web, 2007).The complexity, yet simiplicity of what the systems theory is, is represented by the conjoining explanantion by Hammond (2003. p. 32) Although developments in engineering and management fields are highlighted in the technocratic burn up to systems, the emergence of organismal conceptions in biology, psychology, and sociology during the early twentieth century was more key for the evolution of general systems thought. She continues Of course, biological concepts were interpreted in varying flairs within different currents of systems thought, and were oft appropriated to reinforce and legitimize managerial applications of systems concepts (Hammond, 2003, p. 32). Ludwig von Beralanffy (1968, p. xxiii), provides his description of systems theory as The humane concern of general system theory as I say it makes a difference to mechanistically oriented system theorists speaking totally in terms of mathematics, feedback and technology, and so giving rise to the fear that sys tem theory is indeed the ultimate whole step towards mechanization and d evaluation of man and towards technocratic order of magnitude. The concept, while rather complex, does have a sense of simpliticity in that systems theory really refers to a way of thinking virtually or an approach to studying complex systems (Hammond, 2003. p. 104).Harris (2002, p. 2) advises that von Beralanffys approach was a more organismic approach to the study of complex systems, objecting to the narrow reductionism of classical science. The systems theory, in terms of humans and the kindly sciences, as expressed by Harris (2002, p. 10) has something to crevice in the articulation and implementation of a more sustaining and sustainable imagery of humanitys future.In terms of friendly work, Harris (2002, p. 4) secernates, Within this framework, the welfare demesne has provided the primal vehicle for the mediation of favorable work. Harris (2002, p. 4) continues, The institutional and organisatio nal executees of the welfare deposit have been the source of kind works legal and incorrupt authority and have constituted the material conditions for its practice. Pinderhughes (1997, p. 20) tells us that Training practitioners for competence with diverse populations is high on the list of corrective initiatives to address inadequacies in favorable work practice. Harris (2002, p. 4) indicates that loving policy is twistd by accessible role players who implement legislation on behalf of the disk operating system, indeed exercising coarse influence in their roles as professionals. Importantly, Harris (2002, p. 4) points out The law sets out the rights, duties and responsibilities of tender actors, on the one hand, and of service users, on the opposite, in those affectionately ruffianly areas which have been accorded official recognition. The law not only defines the ends of social work, save constitutes the source of social workers authority for the gist by which they intervene in service users lives in the pursuit of statutory duties. Johnson (1972, p. 77) interprets the front by stating that social work is not mediated by its context, rather, it is a mediated professions w here(predicate)by the democracy decides the clientele as well as what should be provided on their behalf.Harris (1999, pp. 915-937) tells us that social work represents the operational embodiment of the welfare states intervention in individual(a) citizens lives. In agreement the context of social work in the joined Kingdom, Briggs (1961, p. 228) defines the welfare state a state in which organised power is deliberately usedto modify the good turn of market forcesfirst, by guaranteeing individuals and families a minimum income irrespective of the market protect of their work or their victorianty second, by narrowing the extent of risk by enabling individuals and families to meet certain social contingencies, for example, sickness, old age and unemployment which lead some otherwise to individual and family crises and third, by ensuring that all citizens without distinction of spatial relation or class are offered the best standard available in relation to a certain agreed range of social service. The prior is important in understanding the forces behind social work and how such impacts upon its application, usage and context on lives, as well as the conscious and unconscious view that the public has.In helping to imprint this picture further, Marshalls (1963, p. 74) helps to color the palette further in explaining that the social element means the whole range from the right to a modicum of economic welfare and security to the right to share to the full in the social heritage and to live the life of a civilised macrocosm according to the standards prevailing in the society He continues that The institutions most most connected with it are the educational system and the social service (Marshall, 1963, p. 74) In fact, social work plays an important part in linking the state to its lower classes as it represents the physical human link between government and what it does for the stack that can be seen, felt and touched. Or in other words, used State functions such as roads, infrastructure, sustainable communities, parks, airports, laws, police, and all of the others run that the state provides are there in a physical sense, such as roads, etc, or there for instances of danger, such as the police and armed forces. fond work is a helping, touchy arm of the state that reaches us in the same manner as health services. Wootton (1959, p. 298-299) offers a description in stating that The social worker who does for the run of ordinary people what confidential secretaries and pay heedants do for the favoured few is spewting a genuine professional skill at the disposal of those who may properly be called her clients and she is as essential to the mental do work of a welfare state as is lubrication to the running of an engine. Without her the machinery would seize up.Marshall (1975, p. 205) illustrates the antedate by referring to social workers as the mechanics that reserve their expertise to the lubrication of the welfare state engine were professionals using their expertise in the delivery of social services. The government, along with social work cite the segment of the population that requires assistance and thus through budgeting and policy, allocates the resources to meet those needs (Alaszewski and Manthorpe, 1990, p. 237). Interestingly, as the areas of accepted social work practice have come to be seen as the norm, and injustice was made less tolerable, historically, new services were thus clamoured for to feel other needs thus explaining the growing temperament of the state and social care (Harris, 2002, p. 13)Gertrude Wilson is generally acknowledged as existence a key individual in the development of assort work (Smith, 2004). Her first book Case Work and Group Work put fort h the integrated approach to social work practice which is establish in the theory that personal problems stem from both internal and right(prenominal)(a) sources, and thus must be investigated and examined in tandem (Smith, 2004). Her rendering of sort out work states that 1) it is developmental, in that it provides for normal social growth, 2) is protective or corrective, representing that it can be offered to people without concourses, 3) and that it is instrumental in terms of achieving socially preferable ends (Smith, 2004). The last facet entails the understanding of each members personalities, the influence of the social worker in terms of their interaction on the convention, and the dish up of participation (Smith, 2004). A key facet of this wreak represents the capability to assist participants in dealing with conflict and in accepting outsiders (McDermott, 2002, p. 14). She points to the antecedent as essential in making the group work relationship become recipro cal (McDermott, 2002, p. 14). It is reciprocity that represents a key element in the work on as it sets the foundation for give and take as well as fosters trust, ropiness within the group and this can thus be transferred to the outside cosmosness (McDermott, 2002, p. 14).Trecker (1948, p. 7) advises, social group work represents one method on the profession of social work. He indicates that social case work and community organization work represent the other methods. Trecker (1948, p. 7) believes that a definition of social group work is easier to describe than define. He sees it as a method that is comprised of an orderly, systematic, planned way of working with people in groups (Trecker, 1948 pp. 7-8). Trecker goes on to add that the method is a conscious procedure, a designed means of achieving a goal (1948, pp. 8). Additionally, he adds that it is a method is a way of doing something, barely underneath the doing we ever discover an integrated arrangement of knowledge, und erstanding and principles. (Trecker, 1948 pp. 8).Important to the understanding of group work in the context of social work agreement is the family. Hartman and Laird (1983, p. 4) help to provide perspective in stating, gay macrocosms can be understood and helped only in the context of the knowledgeable and powerful human systems of which they are a part, of which the family is one of the most important. Smith (1995, p. 7) elaborates in stating, there is no single, correct definition of family. Rather, there are multiple definitions derived from particular theoretical perspectives. She adds, No one theory could satisfactorily represent the truth, but the many ways we look at families can help us to better understand them (Smith, 1995, p. 7). Lastly, we shall take a look at Hartman and Laird (1983, p. 30), who tell usA family becomes a family when dickens or more individuals have decided they are a family, that in the intimate, here-and-now environment in which they gather, ther e is a sharing of emotional needs for closeness, of living space which is deemed home, and of those roles and tasks necessary for meeting the biological, social and psychological requirements of the individuals involved.The antecedent has been included to help in rounding out the important outside(a) as well as internal elements that are factors in a case study concerning social work office roundment.A Study star of the most important, delicate, and critical functions carried on by social work is the localisation of children in foster homes. As can be imagined, it represents an important as well as confidential affect for the child as well as the placement team intermeshed in the process. Owing to that confidentiality, read case files are not available, only synopsis of placement studies entailing the methodologies employed. spot stories entail descriptions of external variables as indicated by basic placement overviews, but not the substance. The Bracknell afforest Boroug h Council (2005) provided an equitable resource in that it provides an outline of the procedures, and practice guidelines concerning foster placement arrangements made under private fostering regulations. nether the new regulations governing the placement of children, local authorities must be satisfied concerning the suitable nature of any proposed arrangement (Bracknell woodwind instrument Borough Council, 2005). If the foregoing is not the case, then verbalise local authority must cause its powers ether prohibit and or impose requirements prior to the child being fostered, along with any and all needed safeguards.In understanding the nuances of social work placement, certain descriptions and definitions of a few terms will aid in the understanding of the process. A privately fostered child represents any child under the age of 16 years of age, 18 if disabled, that is cared for and accommodated for 28 square days or longer by someone other that the childs parent, relative or s omeone provided with parental responsibility as provided by the parent for said instance (Bracknell Forest Borough Council, 2005). The carers responsibility entails an individual who does not have parental responsibility for a particular child, however does have care of the child (Bracknell Forest Borough Council, 2005). The definition indicates that the carer may do what is reasonable in terms of any, and all circumstances to safeguard, and or promote the welfare of that child (Bracknell Forest Borough Council, 2005). In terms of the duties of the local authority, which represents an extremely important facet in the placement of a child, said local authority has a number of important duties to fulfill. These entail factors such as 1) publise advise and affirmation, 2) ensure compliance with regulations, 3) carry out proper checks and visits, 4) ensure children under care is safeguarded in accordance to regulations, 5) ensure punctual officer visits, 6) ensure visited children are seen alone and interviewed, 7) investigate al complaints, 8) inform parents or other authorized individuals of the childs welfare, 9) ensure authority satisfaction with foster placement, 10) monitor compliance, 11) take appropriate action(s), 12) annual evaluations sent to Director of Childrens Services on placements and outcomes (Bracknell Forest Borough Council, 2005).The family placement social worker has the following responsibilities. First, they conduct the initial suitability evaluation of the proposed foster carers as well as all other household members (Bracknell Forest Borough Council, 2005). Next, the social work conducts an evaluation of the accommodations, and neighbourhood environment, and forms a close involvement with the social worker of the child concerning placement suitability and the potential of the placement in meeting the needs of the child as well as the likelihood of furthering the childs welfare (Bracknell Forest Borough Council, 2005). With the precedin g handled, the social worker then makes recommendations concerning the suitability of a meeting with all parties (Bracknell Forest Borough Council, 2005). If the foregoing go have all concluded positively, the social workers current responsibilities thus entail providing support, as well as assistance to the carer and others as appropriate and or necessary (Bracknell Forest Borough Council, 2005).The preceding board steps represent the outline of the procedures in child placement. In a actual case, the steps as well as lucubrate are more defined. In an actual placement, the fieldwork staff conducts contacts with the parent, if such is the case, and the proposed foster carers (Bracknell Forest Borough Council, 2005). After all the relevant steps under the preceding have been seen to, the assessment is forwarded to the placement social worker, provided the foregoing has met requirements, and the placement process begins.The summary placement outline above brought into the equation the concept of social work from its broader perspective as brought forth by Harris (2002, p. 4) where he indicates that social policy is influenced by social workers who implement legislation on behalf of the state, thus exercising considerable influence in their roles as professionals. The education continues with The law sets out the rights, duties and responsibilities of social workers, on the one hand, and of service users, on the other, in those socially problematic areas which have been accorded official recognition (Harris, 2002, p.4). The preceding refers to the rules, procedures and requirements that must be adhered to by the placement agency, social workers and all other involved in the process.The aspect of group work is evident end-to-end the entire process, even before it begins. The local authority, placement agency, field workers, placement social worker, and child social worker all are engaged under the same regulated procedural network, even if no cases, and or pl acements are being handled. The regulations call for consistent, and constant monitoring of outstanding placement, thus requiring and causing the varied teams, and individuals to maintain contact. That ongoing working relationship represents the group work theory in practice and application. Trecker (1948, p. 7) described group work as an orderly, systematic, planned way of working with people in groups. To the preceding Trecker (1948, p. 8) added the method is a conscious procedure, a designed means of achieving a goal. McDermoot (2002, p. 3) adds to the foregoing in stating well-disposed workers, psychologists, community workers, youth workers and other service providers in the human services field spend much of their time working with groupsas staff members, as colleaguesusing groups as intervention strategies.The initial contact stage starts this collative group work process in the placement environment. The family placement social worker meets with the field social worker and discusses the proposed placement, obtaining a copy of the reports (Bracknell Forest Borough Council, 2005). The trust and competence issues are strong in that each step in the process relies heavily on the steps that preceded it. As a result, the systems theory represents the underpinning that binds the entire process. It alike represents the underlying framework that constitutes how the rules, regulations and processes were devised and set up, as well as their ongoing modification as culture, expertise and experience warrants. To review, the systems theory investigates both the principles common to all complex entities as well as models which can be used to describe them (Principia Cybernetica Web, 2007). Ludwig von Beralanffy explains that an important element of the systems theory really refers to a way of thinking about (Hammond, 2003. p. 104). The systems theorys interdisciplinary study concerning human life, along with social organization as represented by systems (Princip ia Cybernetica Web, 2007) represents the underpinning via which the described rules, procedures, regulations, follow up, monitoring, interview, research, and evaluation processes take place. The intial contacts as well as checks conducted by the placement social worker include interdepartmental checks on the proposed carer as well as information gleaned in the initial and follow up meetings and interviews (Bracknell Forest Borough Council, 2005).All of these steps as well as the ones that follow are elements of the systems theory, foundations of social work and group theory. If one steps back from the process and reviews the overall steps again, the relevance of the systems theory begins to take shape. It, the systems theory is the transdisciplinary study of the abstract organization of phenomena, in a context that is in qualified of their substance, type, or spatial or temporal scale of existence (Principia Cybernetica Web, 2007). The steps in the active procedure do take place in a temporal time frame. However, the functioning of the system of rules, regulations and procedures is incessantly active, functioning and waiting to be utilized whether there is something engaging it or not. In this context, the foregoing precepts underpinning the systems theory gains clarity.McDermott (2002, p. 14) aids in bringing the group work concept into the preceding placement situation in her discourse of reciprocity. She states that it is reciprocity that represents a key element in the process as it sets the foundation for give and take as well as fosters trust, and cohesion within the group and this can thus be transferred to the outside world (McDermott, 2002, p. 14). The foregoing aptly describes the internal working mechanism of the group which at the investigation stage centers upon the placement social worker, and later pulls in the childs social worker to complete the process. This continues with the evaluation of suitability concerning the carers as well as othe r family and household members. Through the utilization of the systems theory, all contingencies are evaluated and considered as a part of the whole, and extended whole.In reviewing the process in terms of the lessons learned, and potential for different application(s) in the future, is a sentiment of evolution. Regardless of how correctly the system seems from the review of the procedural steps, there is ever so room for improvement as a result of the human factor, group work, systems theory and social work contexts. The potential for human error looms as the biggest failing point in that the entire procedural methodology is based, dependent and reliant upon human input, decisions, evaluation and observations. The central component in the process the placement social worker who makes the final determination based upon the outstanding inputs from all other quarters. And while it is true that the field work social worker as well as the child social worker could potential taint the input and results, it is the placement social worker that sorts and arrives at the determination. Thus, as the potential weak segment within the process, a phased step review whereby a second placement social worker, or supervisor briefed at every turn, periodically steps in at any stage in the live process and makes observations, suggestions, and or calls for additional information to shore up the potential for error, and or critical factors needing closer attention, and or review. In addition, computer modeling of the effectiveness of the group members as an evaluation projection, would serve to alert the supervisory personnel to the potential for weak points in one of the tam member profile as a note for either an additional check, and or review.ConclusionThe seemingly distant facets of systems theory, group work, and social work as a cohesive aspect of placement requires the long view in order to see the fit of these elements up close. At the heart of these theoretical and pr actical applications is a child, which is and remains the centralize of these aspects. Thus, with the well being and welfare of a vulnerable human being at stake, the processes, systems, regulations, rules and procedures can never be too precise, careful or correct, as the cost of error is incalculable.McDermott (2002, p. 1) says, You have to have done a bit (of group work) yourself to understand the process. In terms of the context of this examination, McDermoot (2002, p. 3) advises that favorable workers, psychologists, community workers, youth workers and other service providers in the human services field spend much of their time working with groupsas staff members, as colleaguesusing groups as intervention strategies. She adds, group work is about building bonds between people which depend on the establishment of swear relationships (McDermott, 2002, p. 14). She further elaborates, It is also about helping to forge connections between people who may be different or unlike on e another. This latter(prenominal) activityfinding common ground across differencesis the more difficult, and it is here that group workers and participants require knowledge and skills (McDermott, 2002, p. 14).The foregoing summarizes the interlinked aspects of the process that call for increase cohesion as well as improvement through modification, interpersonal relationships and skills, as well as understanding that the potential for error always exists, and can hide itself anywhere in the process. With that consideration uppermost in the minds of the participants, the occurrence is less likely to happen.BibliographyAlaszewski, A. and Manthorpe, J. (1990) Literature review the New properly and the professions. Vol. 20. British Journal of Social WorkBracknell Forest Borough Council (2005) Private fosterage Policy, Procedures Practice Guidance. Retrieved on 13 may 2007 from http//www.bracknell-forest.gov.uk/Briggs, A. (1961) The welfare state in historical perspective. Vol. 2. N o. 2. European Journal of SociologyDevon County Council (2007a) The Children Act 1989. Retrieved on 12 whitethorn 2007 from http//www.devon.gov.uk/index/cyps/fostering/foster_carer-2/foster-care-handbook/fos-law-relat-to-child/fos-law-relat-to-child2.htmDevon County Council (2007b) The Local Authority Fostering Service. Retrieved on 12 may 2007 from http//www.devon.gov.uk/index/cyps/fostering/foster_carer-2/foster-care-handbook/fostering-service.htmHammond, D. (2003) The Science of Synthesis Exploring the Social Implications of General Systems Theory. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Co., United StatesHarris, J. (1999) State social work and social citizenship. Vol. 5. British Journal of Social Work,Harris, J. (2002) The Social Work Business. Routledge, Boulder, Co., United StatesHartman, A., Laird, J. (1983) Family-Centered Social Work Practice. Free Press, New York, United StatesHMSO (1989) Children Act 1989. Retrieved on 12 May 2007 from http//www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1989/ Ukpga_19890041_en_1.htmInternational Society for the Systems Sciences (2007) Home Page. Retrieved on 13 May 2007 from http//www.isss.org/Johnson, T.J. (1972) Professions and Power. London Macmillan.Ludwig von Bertalanffy, (1952) General System Theory Foundations, Development, Applications. George Braziller, New York, United StatesMarshall, T.H. (1963) Citizenship and social class. Heinemann, London, United KingdomMarshall, T.H. (1975) Social Policy in the Twentieth Century. Hutchinson, London, United KingdomMcDermott, F. (2002) Inside Group Work A Guide to pondering Practice. Allen Unwin, Crows Nest, New South WalesPrincipia Cybernetica Web (2007) What is Systems Theory? Retrieved on 12 May 2007 from http//pespmc1.vub.ac.be/SYSTHEOR.htmlPinderhughes, E. (1997) Developing diversity competence in child welfare and permanence planning. In G. R. Anderson, A. S. Ryan, and B. R. Leashore. The Challenge of Permanency Planning in a multicultural Society. Haworth, New York, United StatesSm ith, S. (1995) Family theory and multicultural family studies. In Goldsby, B., Smith, S. Families in multicultural Perspective. Guilford Press, New York, United StatesSmith, M. (2004) Gertrude Wilson and social group work. Retrieved on 12 May 2007 from http//www.infed.org/thinkers/wilson.htmTrecker, H. (1948) Social Group Work Principles and Practices. Womans Press, New York, United StatesWootton, B. (1959) Social Science and Social Pathology. Allen Unwin, London, United Kingdom
Friday, March 29, 2019
A basic Introduction of finale and its heartThe word burnish is generated from Latin word of cultura which means cargon, or cultus that means civilization. (Harper 2010) It back be defined as complicated system of looks that sh ar and practice by a given aggroup of spate or alliance. This engender ons beliefs, economic determine, knowledge, laws, uniforms and signifi tailt objects. (Andersen and Taylor 2007) heathenish and society ar intertwined and they potbelly non be separated from distri notwithstandingively otherwise. Society strikes to groups of battalion who check marks in the corresponding region and follows the same laws executed by their countries. (Kendall 2010) Hence, hoi polloi in the same region leave behind normally achieve the same horti burnish. (Brinkerhoff et al 2008)Some socialists insure last as a centering of life (Mohanthy 2005) regards to tidy sum ways of thinking and behaving. (Macionis 2005) Culture besides refers to activitie s or symbols that created and adopted by throng to deal with certain issues in found to survive in their environ custodyts and accepted by their society. (Brym and perch 2007) Further, it displace too be a tool to unite the society so that every cardinal great deal rally together by having the same culture, same direction. (Andersen and Taylor 2007) For deterrent example, Malaysia is renowned as rich heathen heritage beca implement of having antithetical races with diverse cultures that sire volume together (Boey 2007) in particular done the latest One Malaysia concept. (Bernama 2009)Culture is sh bed and transmitted from generation to generation for future guidance. (Kendall 2010) Different cultures volitioning be plowshared when there are various races and ethics groups. (Andersen and Taylor 2007) This fanny be explained further by the culture of distri stilling red packets during Chinese rising Year by Chinese. This culture of giving red packets does not lones ome(prenominal) share by Chinese in fact it has been adopted by Malays in distributing green packets during Hari Raya celebration. (Faroukaperu 2010) Thus, culture is learned and not innate(p) instinctively. (Andersen and Taylor 2007)Next, culture is changing all the times and antithetical across to places. People immediately tend to change their cultures based on their preferences. For example, plurality handle a shot depart wear black apparels during Chinese New Year blush it is prohibited by their traditional cultures. People in US give court and hug as their way of greetings which is wholly different from Malaysia where there provide be no advise actions in greetings. This shows that regular(a) the same actions goat crop different meanings when it applied in different countries because of their distinguish cultures. (ibid) limit of CulturePart TwoThere are two different types of culture, which are material and non-material cultures. real(a) culture refers to cr udely (Ferrante 2008) or gentleman make items that push aside be fascinaten, wield, and share by society. (Kendall 2010) They are signifi deposet as evidences to show the existing of previous, current and oncoming society. (Epitacio and Palispis 1996) Contrarily, non-material culture screw be defined as in tactual concepts that get out affect on how deal be hold back. (Kendall 2010) This consists of symbols, terminology, value, beliefs and norms that created and followed by particular group of people in society which I depart discuss below. (Epitacio and Palispis 1996)SymbolsThe presence of culture is because of kind expertness to invent and access symbols. (Popenoe 1989) Symbols are type of tangible objects or ideas that people appoint them with denominations or purports. (Ferrante 2008) Symbols permit people to categorize their experience and deduce from it. This understructure be shown by the symbols of daddy and mummy that gutternot be in force(p) now address to anyone. As the baby oftentimes heard the words, thus he knows who he should address these phrases to. (Brym and harp 2007)Symbols can too create patriotism, appealing or hatred because they are represented by certain tangible items. For example, national songs can stand for nationalism, roses represent likable and weapons represent hatred. Next, sinlessness colour of gown and garments are usually worn by bride and ostler because white stands for pureness. People might besides use symbols to show their billet in the society, for example the car BMW is a symbol of affluent and wealthy. Hence, whe neer we see undivided driving BMW, we will automatically categorize that people as rich. (Kendall 2010)In addition, symbols of gestures that seem sinless can sometimes offend people with different cultures. The thumbs up gesture that usually express excellent can be troublesome in Australia as it means up yours. They arrive at to remember that there are different symbolic meanings in different society and new symbols can be created anytime. (Macionis 2005) spoken languageLanguage is a type of symbols that permit people to share their concepts, allow them to consider sagely before interact with people. (Anderson and Taylor 2007) There are verbal and nonverbal languages. (Kendall 2010) Language is considered to be the most essential symbol in expressing our past, sentiment and cognizance because it is straight forward and easy to understand. (Popenoe 1989)Some socialists alleged that language can be utilise to differentiate human from animals. (Epitacio and Palispis 2007) Scientist St level(p) Pinker has claimed that language is what naturally born by human creations. (Brym and populate 2007) Although animals do not communicate with each other by language, they do deliver the ability to learn but with limitations. For instance, parrot that will follow on what the trainers train it to be. But yet, their memories are definite and they do not wee-wee the capability to understand the meaning of its. Therefore, animals cannot enlighten the messages to their progeny unlike human. (Kendall 2010)Language and culture are inseparable. As children learn their language, they will understand much than nigh their culture and figure fully into it. The sense of be spaciousings to their own culture can be created and through language they can share the bygone and world afterwards tomorrow. (Ferrante 2008) Through language people can realize others experiences and mistakes to ensure no repetition on the same failure. (Epitacio and Palispis 2007)Each language has their own vocabulary, orthoepy and ways of constructing excoriates. (Anderson and Taylor 2007) For example, English language people will construct a judgment of conviction in the subject-verb-objects (The girls are manoeuvreing Barbie dolls) which is different compare to Korean subject-object-verb (The girls Barbie dolls are vie). Korean and Chinese will first address their famil y title but western people will save address their family adduce after mentioned their own name. (Ferrante 2008) Sometimes the same words can likewise pronounce differently by using American or British slang. Further, vocabulary for tomatoes is known as pomodoro in Luigi and agvabiya in Shoshanna. These clearly show the using of languages can categorize the society people are in (Brym and Lie 2007) and to shape unity within the groups. (Brinkerhoff et al 2008)Nevertheless, Sapir-Whorf Thesis was proposed in 1930s by linguists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf regard to the relationships betwixt experiences, concepts and language. (Brym and Lie 2007) This hypothesis claimed that the language people use will shape their sight of actuality astir(predicate) how they look the world (Anderson and Taylor 2007) and no languages will form the same thoughts of actuality. (Popenoe 1989) However, many scientists found this thesis exaggerated the relationship between language and peopl e concept, ways of behaving. They do agree that the language could affect their behavior and perception but will not ascertain it. (Kendall 2010)Language also being used to differentiate gender and this can be shown by example of word masculine used to describe he as strong while feminine is used to represent she as coward. (Brym and Lie 2007) However, as time passes, many vocabularies that previously sole(prenominal) refer to men has changed as many women nowadays are postgraduately educated. For example, the word moderate in the past has amended to either chair or electric chair in organizations. (Kendall 2010) determine and BeliefsValues represent the perfect manners to fall the desirability regard to justice, redress versus incorrectly and cracking verse pitiful. (Anderson and Taylor 2007) Values are intangible notions that could form the perfectionism of society. (Popenoe 1989) Meanwhile, values also shape a individuals behavior (Anderson and Taylor 2007) and people will use their values as cases to adjudicate the attitude of psyche. (Kendall 2010) As claimed by Talcott Parsons (1951), values are imbibed by people since they are small through their parents or environmental factors. (Popenoe 1989) Thus by evaluating the attitudes of soul, people can determine the fundamental values on what they learnt in the former. (Epitacio and Palispis 1996)Values are reciprocal with culture. (Macionis 2005) Some cultures will value more on individualism whereas some will value more on group. Seen in this light, we can realize people in US value more on individualism as they more focus on their personal achievement rather than sharing it with others. This is totally different with Korean that is construct to share their joyful with others and they tend to be more unity. (Ferrante 2008)Furthermore, values have mutual relationships with beliefs. Beliefs are notions and concepts that bind people together and what they grasp it should be. Some socialists claimed that beliefs are the fundamental for values and guiding people to pass through their lives even though sometimes it might be wrong or sinful. (Anderson and Taylor 2007) Cultural beliefs and values do not only charm people viewpoints but could shape their ways of behaving. (Macionis 2005)Another example to prove that beliefs and values affect the attitude of people can be seen from Kwakiutl group who have the habit of distributing their wealthy to their people or even to their competitors. (Anderson and Taylor 2007) They desire by doing such(prenominal) a way their people will stay loyalty and offer them helps whenever they are in troubles. (Brinkerhoff et al 2008)However, values contradictions ceaselessly occur due to the conflicts of ideal and real culture. Ideal culture refers to the culture that someone should practice in society while real culture is what eventually adopted by people. (Kendall 2010) This can be seen by the example of China tainted take out powder by Sanlu pigeonholing that happened previously. Their only concern in making profits and ignored customers safety has shown the stemma of ideal and real cultures adopted by pipeline. (BBC News 2008) (Refer to bail 1 paginate 15 to 16)NormsNorms refer to cultural expectations regard on what actions to be carried out when facing issues. (Anderson and Taylor 2007) Norms also act as standards to go forth feel of thumb about what are right and wrong, what should be done or forbid by society. Even though it almost the same as values, but norms clarify how people should behave while values only provide ideas and concepts regard to behaviors. (Kendall 2010) Thus, norms can also form people attitude and decide the stability of society. (Anderson and Taylor 2007)There are formal and informal norms. (Ferrante 2008) Formal norms are rules that have recorded and must be obeyed while informal norms refer to situations that will happen everyday. (Anderson and Taylor 2007) For instance, the co mpendium given to high school scholar is a type of formal norms and student ought to follow the rules evoked. Informal norms can be seen by normal routines such as brush your odontiasis early in the morning and before you sleep without the necessity to remind. (Ferrante 2008) Norms also consist of prescriptive and proscriptive norms in which the former declare what actions are correct and the latter record conducts of wrongdoings. (Kendall 2010)US sociologist William Graham Sumner (1906) has introduced norms of folkways and mores. According to him, it is informal norm that will give us discipline (Ferrante 2008) and will not have any serious circumstances even if someone breaks it. (Popenoe 1989) For example, someone is violating the folkways when he dyes his hair into green. Even though other people might view him as insane or mad, but his act never prod anyones life and will not affect the society. (Brinkerhoff et al 2008)Next, mores are alpha to govern the ethically of behav iors (Brym and Lie 2007) that could influence the stability of society if someone breach it. (Kendall 2010) Unlike folkways, people who commit mores will be penalize more seriously, such as im prisonment or even sentence to death. This normally applies to criminal cases such as murder that against by laws. (Ferrante 2008) Incent restrict is an example of crucial mores that prohibit from having any sexual desire and intimate relationships with person that have the same kinship. (Kendall 2010) The violation of this taboo can bring unexpected shameful and revengements such as imprisonment, whipping or both(prenominal) can be executed at the same time. (Anderson and Taylor 2007) To sum up, folkways will determine either polite or impolite while mores will differentiate correct or evildoings. (Macionis 2005)Laws have implemented for modulating and governing people attitudes and actions. (Epitacio and Palispis 1996) Laws are part of formal norms that compile and endorsement by state g overnment. (Brinkerhoff et al 2008) closely of the mores are laid under criminal laws with more serious penalties (Epitacio and Palispis 1996) while civil laws are basically for handling cases about arguments. (Kendall 2010) However, laws are sometimes flexible and pamper to certain acts which might seen as culpable. This can be shown by the example where most Chinese will have the habit of dramatic play during Chinese New Year. Even though gambling is an prohibited behavior but many polices will just close one eye because they refer this as a way on how Chinese society share their joyful during their festival. (The Star 2006) (Refer to Attachment 2 page 17 to 18)Lastly, sanction can also be applied for the intention to compel norms and it can either be validatory or negative. (Popenoe 1989) Positive sanction refer as recompenses that someone will receive by doing adequate conducts whereas negative sanctions will be administered when someone did something guilty. (Kendall 2010) The degree of sanctions will rely on how strong the norm is being concerned. (Anderson and Taylor 2007)However, there are formal and informal sanctions. (Popenoe 1989) Formal sanction only occur when someone in the high status with power expect in decision making physical process. An example of formal sanction can be viewed by the Muslim Malay model that has to receive sanction of canning because of her violation in boozing alcoholics drinks. (Mail Online 2009) (Refer to Attachment 3 page 19 to 20) Nonetheless, informal sanction is a control to assure the compliance of people or society to certain norms. For example, society in Aguaruna adopts custom of reciprocity. If someone does not interact with others, the individual will be isolated and no one will assist them whenever they need helps. (Gutierrez 2002)Material Culture alike only referring to physical and tangible items, material culture also covers the process of utilizing skills for producing items (Brym and Lie 2007) usin g ingredients such as raw materials, or even invent through existing objects. (Kendall 2010) This clearly shows that material culture cannot not be isolated from applied science that refer to the literacy and wisdom to invent, introduce, alter and vary something to maximize its usage. (Macionis 2005) Sociologists also called material culture as artifacts due to its education and usage by human. (Popenoe 1989)Material culture plays a significance fictitious character because it shows the advancement of technology in enriching people life. In fact, material cultures are interdependence with non-material cultures because archaeologists can only analyze and identify the non-material cultures through the tool up artifacts left by former society. (ibid)However, sociologist William F. Ogbum claimed sometimes cultural mental retardation can occur due to the inability of non-material cultures to pursue with the progress of material culture. (Kendall 2010) Example of cultural lag can be shown through the technology of cloning (material culture) that is possible to clone human with the same genes, characteristics, shared values and norms. However, many people banned this technology because it is differs from their religion beliefs (non-material culture) that everyone has to pass through the process of death. (BBC News 2006) (Refer Attachment 4 page 21 to 22)Material culture can be concluded as instruments to form human beings and vice versa. (Popenoe 1989) For example, iPhone has grabbed abundance attentions when it was first presented in the market and many people has buying it. Functions of this high end technology gadget (material culture) will be fully utilized and discovered by their buyers. Thus, material culture will form how human beings reacted meanwhile the desire of human beings to use high technology gadget nowadays have made many companies merge in the fray to devise this kinds of material cultures. (Catanzariti 2009) Countless material cultures hav e also introduced through the advancements of technologies in the fields of Internet, telecommunication and transportation such as aeroplanes, computers. (Kendall 2010)Part ThreeSocial Conflict perspective claimed culture as social item (Brinkerhoff et al 2008) because the variation of privileged groups or society to govern social life and exploit others. (Kendall 2010) It is so called as conflict because it only benefits and focus on powerful groups. (Popenoe 1989) According to Karl Marx, ideas play an important role in society and thus the concept of political orientation which is the shared culture beliefs emerged in order to remain their status and authority. (Kendall 2010) This can be supported by the example of ideology in judgment class where bourgeoisies, the swiftness class of Marxian culture have authority to exploit the lower class, proletarians either politically or economically. (Popenoe 1989)Therefore, conflict supposition maintain that culture is a type of auth ority in society because it is change by reversal by strong and wealthy groups of people or institutions. (Anderson and Taylor 2007) These groups of people could use non-material culture such as idea to influence and change people behaviors. (Kendall 2010) For example, the contents of the newspaper would filter before publish to society if it is financially supported by private organizations. They could also convert critical bad news into minor case so the reputation of the organizations will not be affected. Thus, the cultural items that produced are not necessary correct and by and large only meet the demands of this privileged group that willing to pay. (Anderson and Taylor 2007)Conflict theory also construes culture as it will be slow rule by affluent overlarge players in capitalist economic industry. These big players will gradually control and diversify their business for example by buying over other troupe to remain their biggest potion in the market and slowly insert the ir influences to society. It has been claimed that the more successful the business is, the more market the business is holding and the easier the business in affecting culture of others. Sociologist refers this as cultural hegemony, which is the only and biggest power in play. This cultural hegemony has the authority to rule everything because most culture beliefs made by these powerful people are known to be correct and perfect. (ibid)Moreover, this theory analyze concept of cultural capital that define by French Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1984) as the lore and wisdom that own by upper class, such as the activities of playing golf and sailing that distinguish the standards of social class. (Brinkerhoff et al 2008) The reason is simple, upper class people will use their knowledge (cultural capital) to invest their specie and gradually enhance their social and economic position. Therefore, the rich will becomes richer and the ridiculous will becomes poorer. When they have more m oney, they will be more respect and people will start listening to them. (Anderson and Taylor 2007)Some conflict theorists even conclude that former popular culture that originated from the public are slowly unadopted by people due to the creation of new popular culture. This can be shown by games of whirligigs and kites that were previously played by children have no longer been seen in instantlys century. We will be noticed that city children nowadays only play games entertainments like PS2, Internet and mobile phones. This clearly showed that the sophisticated games (new popular culture) have superseded the former popular games and culture. (Kendall 2010)Besides that, it also evokes the inequality in the term of gender and certain human rights. (ibid) For example, women will be described as weakness and timid whereas men will be defined as reverence. Gay and homosexual also addressed as deviance and absurd. All these inequalities have caused pressure that lead to right revolut ions, a process of achieving victory in executing even rights under the legislation. Hence, women, gay, lesbian and many other rights have created in order to protect these endangered groups and maintain the stability of society. Examples of increasing women participation in workforce especially in Singapore have proven that women are changing and they can decide their own future. (Chang 2009) (Refer Attachment 5 page 23 to 24) Iowa is also the first state to legalize gays and lesbian marriage in order to enhance their pride in status. (The Associated Press 2009) (Refer Attachment 6 page 25 to 27) Nevertheless, many Muslim nations still unable to accept oddity and they are still being discriminated by people. (Brym and Lie 2007)In a nutshell, this social conflict theory do not illustrate the as distribution of human necessary but more emphasize on the relationship between culture and its disparity. (Macionis 2005)ConclusionCulture can be concluded as the characteristics of societ y. As the world becomes borderless, cultures easily transmit and share by people from different society. Every material and non-material culture also plays their roles in maintaining harmonization between one another and unites people together. (Kendall 2010) Thus, it is important to know and understand our own cultures (Newman 2008) and pass them to our succeeding(a) generations to ensure its long-lasting. (Brym and Lie 2007)Word Count 3283 wordsAttachmentsAttachment 1 China Sanlu Group tainted milk powderChinese baby milk cloy severePublished 2008/09/13 113643 do BBC MMXThe number of Chinese babies known to have fallen ill with kidney stones as a result of contaminated milk powder has risen to 432, officials have announced.This is a severe food safety accident, health ministry official Gao Qiang, verbalise. Those amenable would be severely punished, he added.Later, it was announced that 19 people had been arrested.Tests showed the milk powder contained the industrial chemical substance melamine. One infant has died.The new shake revived memories of a fake baby milk formula dirt four years ago in which at least 13 babies died.Vow to punishAs of 12 September, there are 432 cases of kidney stones in the urinary systems of infants according to reports from health departments nationwide, Gao Qiang said.None of the milk powder was exported to other countries or regions, Mr Gao said.Only a fraction of the milk powder was change to Taiwan for food processing, he added.Gao Qiang said the Sanlu Group had been ordered to handicap production after its products were found to be responsible.We will severely punish and discipline those people and workers who have acted illegally, Mr Gao said.Melamine is a toxic chemical used in plastics, fertilisers and cleaning products.New Zealand-based dairy product company Fonterra Cooperative Group Ltd, a part-owner of Sanlu, ordered a recall of about 700 tonnes of powder contaminated with melamine believed to be in circulati on.Melamine has been used by Chinese suppliers of animal feed components to make them appear to have more protein.It was linked to the formation of kidney stones and kidney failure in pets in the joined States last year, leading to thousands of deaths and illnesses.A fake milk powder grime in 2004 killed at least 13 babies in the east land of Anhui.Investigators found that the milk given to these babies had no nutritional value, and the resulting scandal triggered widespread investigations into food safety.Story from BBC NEWSSource http//news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/asia-pacific/7614083.stmThe above news is used to show the differences between ideal culture and real culture in real business situation.Attachment 2 GamblingSaturday March 11, 2006The adverse effects of gamblingTel (03)2260 1954/ 2134 or emailInformation in this article is courtesy of theMalaysia offense Prevention Foundation(MCPF)Gambling is illegal in Malaysia unless it is being operated under a government licen ce or permit. Among the gambling activities that are considered illegal includeGambling in the houseGambling in public places embezzled lotteryIllegal bookmakingSlot machines/ jackpot/ turfking/ fruit machine hawk lottery resultsGambling can easily develop into a need for some of us. When this happens, it becomes a serious line of work not only to the individual but also to society at large. The harm caused by those who are hooked on gambling usually spreads to the family and community.Many problem gamblers often experience adjudicate-related physical and psychological ill health. Problem gambling is like a disease to society and may bring these consequences to the individual who indulges in itWastes time, which otherwise could be used for something more constructive.Lose huge amounts of money, which leads to stress and disharmony in the family.One could become a dishonest person who has to constantly worry about debts.Gambling may be a cause of bribery.Work becomes secondary or in some cases, totally neglected.Health is also neglected by forgoing food and drink.As a last resort, some may turn to criminal activities or illegal moneylenders to cover losses and continue gambling.When a person becomes ghost with gambling, s/he will do anything just as long as s/he can gamble.Theres always the risk of acquiring caught and being charged in court.Those who gamble will risk losing everything.The consequences of problem gambling can be avoided by getting involved in other more beneficial activities. Among the suggestions to prevent one from gambling is to focus on spiritual development, take up sports or a hobby, or do some charity work.Some of us resort to illegal moneylenders when we are strapped for cash, which is dangerous and unadvisable. Here are some suggested steps to take to avoid being victims of these loan sharksDo not be lured by promises of quick moneyDo not be easily fooled into subscribe a form or contract by a salespersonVictims should be bold en ough to make a police report, show all information they have on schemes like these, to aid the government in catching the perpetrators.Story from The Star Online.Source http//thestar.com.my/fightcrime/resources/story.asp?file=/2006/3/11/resources/20060316165242HYPERLINK http//thestar.com.my/fightcrime/resources/story.asp?file=/2006/3/11/resources/20060316165242sec=resourcesHYPERLINK http//thestar.com.my/fightcrime/resources/story.asp?file=/2006/3/11/resources/20060316165242sec=resourcessec=resourcesThe above news is being used to show that gambling is illegal in Malaysia even though it has became a norm or habit to Chinese society since ages ago.Attachment 3 Punishment of Canning for breaking sharia law LawMalaysia delays work over of Muslim model for drinking beer until after RamadanByMail Foreign ServiceLast updated at 925 PM on 24th August 2009A Muslim model who is to be berated by Malaysian authorities after being caught drinking beer will have her punishment postponed until after the Islamic sobriety calendar month of Ramadan.Kartika Sari Dewi Shukarno originally had been scheduled to enter a womens prison today before being lashed six times with a rattan cane some time this week.However, Mohamad Sahfri Abdul Aziz, a legislator in charge of religious affairs, says the wickerwork will be carried out after the current Muslim fasting month of Ramadan.It began Saturday and will end in mid-September.He says the decision was made at the last minute for compassionate reasons on the advice of the Attorney Generals station but insisted that the punishment had not been cancelled.Kartika Sari Dewi Shukarno, a 32-year-old mother of two, insisted she is ready to be lashed six times with a rattan cane next week for breaching the countrys Shariah law, which forbids Muslims to consume alcohol.I want to respect the law, Kartika said.Who am I to question the Islamic authorities laws? That is beyond me.I never cried when I was sentenced by the judge. I told myself, a ll right then, lets get on with it. But if youre going to cane me, then do it in public. drop Shukarno, 32, was sentenced to six lashes by an Islamic court after she was caught with alcohol in a raid on a hotel nightclub in eastern Pahang state last year.Amnesty International had urged authorities to immediately knock over the sentence to cane her and abolish the practice of caning altogether.Caning is a form of cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment and is prohibited under internationalistic human rights law, it said in a statement.But Miss Shukarno has even asked for the caning to be carried out in public to send a clear message to Muslims that they should shun alcohol.Prosecutor Saiful Idham Sahimi said It is a good punishment because under Islamic law a person who drinks commits a serious offence.He added that a rattan cane lighter than the one for men would be used, and that its purpose was to educate rather than punish.Muslims, who make up two-thirds of Malaysias 28million population, are governed by sharia law. Although most alcohol offenders are fined, they can also be caned.Womens rights groups attacked the penalty as being too harsh.yesterday the court set a one-week period starting next Monday for the sentence to be carried out in a womans prison, Saiful said. Prison authorities will decide when to cane her during that period.He said Kartika will remain in prison during that time and will be released as soon as possible after the caning is carried out.Caning, administered on the buttocks, breaks the skin and leaves permanent scars. Kartika said earlier that she wanted authorities to cane her as soon as possible so she can resume her life with her husband and children.Most alcohol offenders are fined, but the crime also carries a three-year prison term and caning.Non-Muslims are governed by civil courts, which also impose caning for offens
Thursday, March 28, 2019
counseling and The personate snoopIn this paper I result be taking a look at grassroots precaution functions. Theapproaches, and the synthesis of two views of management. I leave alone attempt to engender an overview of culture and its effect on a company.In todays changing spheric environments many companies have joined the opentrade policies, and existing alien opportunities available to growingcompanies with positive views and soci completelyy responsible attitudes.It every last(predicate) sounds a equivalent(p) a lot to cover in a short experiment so I will introduce a companythat has in its short, yet very successful existence transformed through all the directs and practices mentioned above. The company is called "The remains patronise", Ihope you have comprehend of it for that would make our journey through itsdevelopment even more enjoyable. direction is described as the process of getting activities with and throughother people. This philosophical s ystem has been so widely examined that there areliterally millions of opinions and differing views on the subject. We will onlybe examining the functions of management where the elementals of planning,organizing, leading, and controlling apply to The Body divulge. In 1976 aninexperienced Anita Roddick got tired of unsubstantiated Management and The Body stagclaims of the cosmetics industry that their products couldnt deliver. Shedecided to make a decision that would change her breeding forever. Anita became amanager of her own small business in Brighton England. merchandising the naturalsecrets found throughout the world learned from extensive blend while employedas a teacher with the U.N., she created a bungalow industry of exotic personalbody care products.Planning proven to be the first big obstacle to learn in the track to efficientmanagement. Taking care of buying from around the world for her particular(prenominal) productshad plunged Anita into a frightening and diffic ult role that she needed helpwith. Anita organised her financial burdens by taking on an investor Ian McGlinn,in turn give him a 50 percent s retort in the business.Furthermore she sell the name The Body disclose to personal recruits, carefully leadand controlled by her own philosophies and ideals. Anita had become an idealexample of the classic top level manager taking on the responsibility ofdecision, communication, and information needed to watch her company as aserious competitor, ready for todays gl... ...e locations for Canada - BC.If interested, the Body cop Web Site can be located athttp//www.the-body-shop.com/contents.htmlIn conclusion, The Body Shop has a very effective style of management with AnitaRoddick still in control of the planning, leading, organizing, and makingdecisions for all the franchise stores. The everyday management views and cultureare responsive to the needs of their employees and their customers. The BodyShop is a multinational company that is a pioneer in the alien tradedepartment.BibliographyStephen P. Robbins and Robbin Stuart-Kotze     Management Canadian Fourth Edition (Prentice - Hall INC., ONT., 1994) pg.15-142Keegan, Moriarty, Duncan, Paliwoda     merchandising Candian Edition (Prentice - Hall INC., ONT., 1995) pg.738-48William G. Nickels, James M. McHugh, Susan M. McHugh, Paul D. Berman     Understanding Canadian military control (Richard D. Irwin, INC., 1994) pg. 199-411Dr. Kent E. Curran kecurranunccvm.uncc.edu     MGMT 3140 - Management Concepts and Practices (http//unccvm.uncc.edu/kecurran/lect-02.htm August 25, 1996.) Management And The Body Shop Essay -- searchs look for papers fc Management and The Body ShopIn this paper I will be taking a look at basic management functions. Theapproaches, and the synthesis of two views of management. I will attempt totake an overview of culture and its effect on a company.In todays changing world(a) environments many companies have joined the opentrade policies, and existing orthogonal opportunities available to growingcompanies with positive views and socially responsible attitudes.It all sounds like a lot to cover in a short essay so I will introduce a companythat has in its short, yet very successful existence transformed through all thelevels and practices mentioned above. The company is called "The Body Shop", Ihope you have perceive of it for that would make our journey through itsdevelopment even more enjoyable.Management is described as the process of getting activities with and throughother people. This philosophy has been so widely examined that there areliterally millions of opinions and differing views on the subject. We will onlybe examining the functions of management where the basics of planning,organizing, leading, and controlling apply to The Body Shop. In 1976 aninexperienced Anita Roddick got tired of unsubstantiated Manag ement and The BodyShopclaims of the cosmetics industry that their products couldnt deliver. Shedecided to make a decision that would change her life story forever. Anita became amanager of her own small business in Brighton England. interchange the naturalsecrets found throughout the world learned from extensive hold out while employedas a teacher with the U.N., she created a cottage industry of exotic personalbody care products.Planning turn up to be the first big obstacle to learn in the thoroughfare to efficientmanagement. Taking care of buying from around the world for her finicky productshad plunged Anita into a frightening and difficult role that she needed helpwith. Anita unionized her financial burdens by taking on an investor Ian McGlinn,in turn bragging(a) him a 50 percent stake in the business.Furthermore she sell the name The Body Shop to personal recruits, carefully leadand controlled by her own philosophies and ideals. Anita had become an idealexample of the cla ssic top level manager taking on the responsibility ofdecision, communication, and information needed to hear her company as aserious competitor, ready for todays gl... ...e locations for Canada - BC.If interested, the Body Shop Web Site can be located athttp//www.the-body-shop.com/contents.htmlIn conclusion, The Body Shop has a very effective style of management with AnitaRoddick still in control of the planning, leading, organizing, and makingdecisions for all the franchise stores. The superior general management views and cultureare responsive to the needs of their employees and their customers. The BodyShop is a multinational company that is a pioneer in the inappropriate tradedepartment.BibliographyStephen P. Robbins and Robbin Stuart-Kotze     Management Canadian Fourth Edition (Prentice - Hall INC., ONT., 1994) pg.15-142Keegan, Moriarty, Duncan, Paliwoda      selling Candian Edition (Prentice - Hall INC., ONT., 1995) pg.738-48Willia m G. Nickels, James M. McHugh, Susan M. McHugh, Paul D. Berman     Understanding Canadian melodic line (Richard D. Irwin, INC., 1994) pg. 199-411Dr. Kent E. Curran kecurranunccvm.uncc.edu     MGMT 3140 - Management Concepts and Practices (http//unccvm.uncc.edu/kecurran/lect-02.htm August 25, 1996.)
Brian Clark uses a number of techniques to take in the euthanasia Debate in his play, Whos Life is it AnywayBrian Clark uses a number of techniques to dramatise the EuthanasiaDebate in his play, Whos Life is it Anyway. Euthanasia is the heartby which a person has the freedom of choice over whether they be intimate or congest. In the play there atomic number 18 both briny arguments concerning this issue.One argument saying that a patient has the right to figure out this decisionof life and death and on which disagrees and says the patient shouldnot start this choice.Two characters in the play represent the two central arguments. archetypalof all there is mint, mickle believes that he should have the right to subscribe to to die, it is his life, he says that his whole life before hisaccident was sculpture, and now that he drive outnot sculpt because he isparalysed below his neck, he bequeath never be able to sculpt again Imalmost completely paralysed and always will be. I shall never bedischarged by the hospital. According to Ken his life is alreadyover Of course I want to reside but as far as I am concerned, Im curtlyalreadyI cannot accept this condition constitutes life in any(prenominal) realsense at all. Any reasonable definition of life essential include theidea of it being self-supporting. Ken only wants the dignity indeath each man must brighten his own decision. And mine is to diequietly with as much dignity as I can muster. Ken also argues that heis not asking his lawyer to make a choice over his life or death, justto represent his views to the hospital Im not asking you to makeany decision some my life and death, merely that you represent me andmy views to the hospital. Ken argues that the real matter to bediscussed is the ind... ...ise the full impact of what he has beenfighting for. He will no longer be there once he has won his case. Kenwill cease to exist. This helps us to understand why some citizenry areanti-euthanasia, and wh at grave consequences it has and why euthanasiais an extreme solution to take.The battleground offers many possibilities of visualising and dramatisingthis debate, the medical and legal jargon used in the two acts of theplay, the physical space of the stage and the lighting in combination,the black drollery of Ken, the exits and entrances of differentcharacters that are used as mouthpieces of different views on thedebate. Issues are raised in the play as they could not be in prose.There is a suspension of disbelief, a contract between the dramatistand the audience makes sure that the issues are well explored andcontinue to be in a 30 year-old debate.
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
The post colonial experience has made the goal of harmonised family relationships that much more difficult, due to the families fragmenting throughout the old country and in-migration to the land of the colonizer. Children and adult children a desire lose perspective on their motherland and the struggles within their homeland. They become awe-struck by the development of the colonizers land, and as a precede become confused with where their loyalties should lie. In Arundhati Roys novel The God of splendid Things, the Kochamma family is a family of tragic situations and tragic people. Not all of their problems stem from liquidation in fact it is their own cultural traditions that lead to much of the catastrophe however it can be argued that the underlying theme within the novel is maven of a people oppressed by the colonization of India by England, and how a society already consumed with prejudices based on class (or caste, as the Indian would refer to it) and colour begins to turn on itself, and devalues its own people, glossiness and heritage. The Kochamma family lives, works and plays together. They do not however communicate with each other, nor do they comfort each other or attempt to understand one another. This is the greatest downfall of the family. Colonization plays a role in how somewhat portions begin to perceive each other and India as a wholly as well it lays the foundation for the sense of worthlessness each member of the family feels at different times. Although the English have left India when this story takes slur, their heraldic bearing can still be felt. Englishness and whiteness is held in high regard, and is something to simulate and work towards. The Indians, who had always had a class system and a issue for darker skin,... ...n all of these stories, the children look to their families to help them form their identity and find their place in the world and in most cases are disappointed with the lose of unity and dis- functionality they encounter. This relationship is much like India has with itself and England. Rather than thinking separately and trying to move away from British elaboration and being a people oppressed by colonization, the Indian people become a victim once again insomuch that they continue to think like the colonized even after they have won independence. The fragmentation of families in the post-colonial experience will only cease when the fragmentation of their country and culture has been ratified, and the shameful mindset of the colonized victim is shed from their minds and they are sufficient to find respect and the future in their own customs, culture and people.
The structure actors line and characterisation of Conan Doyles SherlockHolmesIn this es regulate I am going to analysis and investigate the structure,language and characterisation of the emissary fiction genre. Usingthe Sherlock Holmes stories which combined loaded fictional storylines with unmerciful and clever villains they are regarded as some(prenominal) ofthe best collection of examples of storybooks. Sherlock Holmes is aliterary character, created by Arthur Conan Doyle in four novels and56 short stories published between 1887 and 1927.The pioneering author of the research worker genre was an American writerand poet called Edgar Allan Poe. The inaugural ever story was Murders inThe Rue Morge. This was the first to feature the locked room mystery,which is a critical an enliven element for the detective genre. Itbaffles the police and the public but is effortlessly solve withsimplicity by the stories hero. Who is intelligent and analyticalsuperior to the law enforcements? This is an excess commontradition in the genre were the police seem to be deficient inperfection acuteness in Neanderthal ways.Conan Doyle started theme in 1887 with his first story A Study in reddish the story introduces Holmes and his companion Dr.Waston. Agreat majority of these stories involve mystery. The watch of thestory concerns the search for clues or evidence.While there is certainly a good variety of plot structures within theSherlock Holmes), it is safe to say that a majority of the shortstories follow the following pattern of motifs fairly closely. Many ofthese are also found in Poes Dupin stories.The story begins at 221B Baker Street, the residence of the greatdetective and his sidekick narrator, ... ... hisdisguise.the two things that the commentator wonders about in A Case ofIdentityisHow could Mary Sutherland be fooled by her stepfathersdisguise and why didnt Holmes tell her the truth about Hosmer backer?.Was Windibank secretly attracted to Mary all along so h e upright marriedher? If so, then why didnt he marry her in the first place, insteadof her mother? Or is Windibank just a greedy and self-seeking fool, whoconcocted what seemed a harmless way to keep Mary and her income at base of operations for a bit longer?In all , the stories written by Conan Doyle are an intelligentfictional series .I some times horizon that Doyle would have had to ofbeen an gifted man or of known something about detective work to writesuch an intricate set of stories. Which show ruthless clever villainsand Sherlock Holmes who powers of observation baffle any one who readsinto it .
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
collide of Cultures envisi hotshot(a)d in The blessedness flock Club The environment in which one proves up molds their character and behavior. The four daughters portrayed in The Joy Luck Club are of Chinese descent, yet they are non Chinese. The daughters plow in English, not the language of their mformer(a)s, Mandarin. The daughters are addressed by their English references, or they do not have a Chinese name at all. They think as Americans and have little holding of their Chinese thinking, customs or traditions. In me, they take hold of their own daughters, in force(p) as ignorant, just as unmindful of all the truths and commits they have bought to America. They see daughters who grow impatient when their yields talk in Fractured English. They see that joy and circle do not mean the same to their daughters, that to these closed American-born minds joy luck is not a word, it does not exist. They see daughters who will bear grandchildren born without any connect ing hope passed from one generation to generation( burn mark). Chinese generates were taught to desire nothing, to swallow other peoples misery, to corrode my own bitterness. Yet, the daughters do not have this stratagem regard to their mothers. After the piano talent show fiasco, a contention stone-broke out between June and Suyuan. June did not have this blind faithfulness alike a Chinese daughter, I didnt have to do what my mother state anymore. I wasnt her slave. This wasnt China and refused to be the best, perfect, as what her mother wants her to be. Her mother notwithstanding hoped and wanted the best for her daughter, which is the Chinese thinking, yet June takes it that her mother wants her to be person that she is not. When Suyuan tells June, only one kind of daughter can stretch out in this house, the obedien... ...he tensions between mothers and daughters that have their source in a impact of cultures. Tan also shows that as the mothers and daughters reco ncile, these tensions begin to lessen and the daughters begin to bring their Chinese heritage. Works Cited and Consulted Feng, Pin-chia. Amy Tan. Dictionary of Literary Biography. Volume 173 American Novelists since arena struggle II. Fifth Series. Gale Reseach, 1996 281 -289. Heung, Marina. Daughter-Text/Mother-Text Matrilineage in Amy Tans Joy Luck Club. feminist Studies. come about 1993 597 - 613. Schell, Orville. Your Mother is in Your Bones. The brand-new York Times Book Review. 19 establish 1989 3,28. Seaman, Donna, Amy Tan. The Booklist Interview Amy Tan. Booklist. I October 19%. 256,257. Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club. time of origin Contemporaries. New York A Division of Random House, Inc., 1991. Essay on light touch of Cultures Portrayed in Amy Tans The Joy Luck ClubClash of Cultures Portrayed in The Joy Luck Club The environment in which one grows up molds their character and behavior. The four daughters portrayed in The Joy Luck Club are of Chinese descent, yet they are not Chinese. The daughters speak in English, not the language of their mothers, Mandarin. The daughters are addressed by their English names, or they do not have a Chinese name at all. They think as Americans and have little memory of their Chinese thinking, customs or traditions. In me, they see their own daughters, just as ignorant, just as unmindful of all the truths and hopes they have bought to America. They see daughters who grow impatient when their mothers talk in Fractured English. They see that joy and luck do not mean the same to their daughters, that to these closed American-born minds joy luck is not a word, it does not exist. They see daughters who will bear grandchildren born without any connecting hope passed from one generation to generation(Tan). Chinese mothers were taught to desire nothing, to swallow other peoples misery, to eat my own bitterness. Yet, the daughters do not have this blind obedience to their mothers. After the piano ta lent show fiasco, a quarrel broke out between June and Suyuan. June did not have this blind obedience like a Chinese daughter, I didnt have to do what my mother said anymore. I wasnt her slave. This wasnt China and refused to be the best, perfect, as what her mother wants her to be. Her mother only hoped and wanted the best for her daughter, which is the Chinese thinking, yet June takes it that her mother wants her to be someone that she is not. When Suyuan tells June, only one kind of daughter can live in this house, the obedien... ...he tensions between mothers and daughters that have their source in a clash of cultures. Tan also shows that as the mothers and daughters reconcile, these tensions begin to lessen and the daughters begin to accept their Chinese heritage. Works Cited and Consulted Feng, Pin-chia. Amy Tan. Dictionary of Literary Biography. Volume 173 American Novelists since World War II. Fifth Series. Gale Reseach, 1996 281 -289. Heung, Marina. Daughter-Text/Mother -Text Matrilineage in Amy Tans Joy Luck Club. Feminist Studies. Fall 1993 597 - 613. Schell, Orville. Your Mother is in Your Bones. The New York Times Book Review. 19 March 1989 3,28. Seaman, Donna, Amy Tan. The Booklist Interview Amy Tan. Booklist. I October 19%. 256,257. Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club. Vintage Contemporaries. New York A Division of Random House, Inc., 1991.