Saturday, August 31, 2019

Employee Involvement Essay

The direct participation of staff to help an organization fulfill its mission and meet its objectives by applying their own ideas, expertise, and efforts towards solving problems and making decisions. From this definition, participation can include representative participation, direct communication, and upward problem solving. We will focus on the latter two categories because this article is more about understanding outcomes, tools, and methods. The direct participation of staff to help an organization fulfill its mission and meet its objectives by applying their own ideas, expertise, and efforts towards solving problems and making decisions. Based on the thinking that people involved in a process know it best, regular participation of employees in several planning and execution areas occur. Major areas are: (1) deciding how work gets done, (2) suggesting improvements, (3) setting goals, (4) planning, and (5) performance monitoring. That employees will improve their performance if t hey are more motivated by being more involved, is an observed trait. Borders on empowerment. Employee involvement means that every employee is regarded as a unique human being, not just a cog in a machine, and each employee is involved in helping the organization meet its goals. Each employee’s input is solicited and valued by his/her management. Employees and management recognize that each employee is involved in running the business. Employee empowerment is a somewhat different concept. It means that in addition to involving employees in running the business, employees and management recognize that many problems or obstacles to achieving organizational goals can be identified and solved by employees. Employee empowerment means that management recognizes this ability, and provides employees with the tools and authority required to continuously improve their performance. The management states its expectations about employees recognizing and solving problems, and empowers them to do so. Employee Motivation  is the â€Å"psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort and a person’s level of persistence Using rewards as motivators divides employee motivation into two categories: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic rewards are internal, psychological rewards such as a sense of accomplishment or doing  something because it makes one feel good.[7] Extrinsic rewards are rewards that other people give to you such as a money, compliments, bonuses, or trophies. â€Å"the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.† Theory XTheory x states that people are generally lazy. Since people are lazy they will try at all costs to avoid work. They will do what they can to waste time and find other things to do. Sigmund Freud the creator of this theory believed that the only way to get people to do work was to threaten them with punishment if they didn’t do their work. This idea is important because if it holds true, motivation becomes extremely important. If people don’t want to do any work it is necessary to motivation Theory X MIT Professor Douglas McGregor Theory X—assumes that people are basically lazy and will avoid working if they can. To make sure that employees work, Theory X managers impose strict rules and make sure that all important decisions are made only by them. Theory Y Theory Y assumes that people find satisfaction in their work. Theory Y managers believe that people are creative and will come up with good ideas if encouraged to do so. They tend to give their employees much more freedom and let them make mistakes. Theory Z is a business management theory that integrates Japanese and American business practices. The Japanese business emphasis is on collective decision making, whereas the American emphasis is on individual responsibility. McGregor’s Theories Theory X- Autocratic Dislike Work Avoid Responsibility Little Ambition Force/Control/ Direct/Threaten Motivated by Fear & Money Theory Y- Democratic Like Work Naturally Works Toward Goals Seeks Responsibility Imaginative, Creative, Clever Motivated by Empowerment

Friday, August 30, 2019

Plath Sample answer

â€Å"Plath’s provocative imagery serves to highlight the intense emotions expressed in her poetry.†I agree completely that Plath uses a lot of provocative imagery to highlight the intense emotions expressed in her poetry.The poem I will discuss in light of this statement is ‘Morning Song’.In this poem I found a lot of provocative imagery that made me feel various emotions. One provocative image that stood out for me was, ‘new statue’. I found this image provocative because it’s abnormal to describe your new born baby as a statue. It provoked/caused anger and confusion in me. It made me angry because I think that Plath is suggesting that her child is a possession. I believe it is wrong to have a child just to add to your life like a new car or home. It also confused me because the title suggests something positive but to me this image is negative.Another provocative image that stood out for me was, ‘In a drafty museum, your nakedne ss shadows our safety’. This is a provocative image because I find that Plath is being harshly honest when it comes to her relationship with her husband. To describe your home as being a drafty museum is unusual. It made me feel respect towards Plath but also anger. I respect her for being able to tell the truth about her relationship. To express the loneliness and depression she feels is courageous. However I feel anger at the idea that somehow having a child would fix the problems in their relationship, ‘your nakedness shadows our safety’.A third provocative image that stood out for me was, ‘I’m no more your mother’. This to me is extremely provocative. Her child is only born and already Plath is feeling that she is not or should not be a part of her daughter’s life. This provoked/caused me to feel sadness and pity for Plath. I feel that she’s afraid that her child will soon be an individual and will not need her mother’ s advice or encouragement. This makes me feel sad for Plath as a mother, to already be thinking of when her daughter leaves the home instead of enjoying the moments of her being a child. I also feel pity  for Plath because I feel she hopes that her child won’t need her. I think she feels this way because she’s afraid her child will be like her and take on her depression.The final provocative image that stood out for me was, ‘In my Victorian nightgown’. This is a provocative image because again I think Plath is being blatantly honest when it comes to her relationship with her husband. I think she uses the nightgown as a symbol for a lack of passion in her relationship with her husband. This image made me feel respect for Plath. I respect her for being able to tell the truth about her relationship. To express the loneliness and depression she feels is courageous especially when it’s something intimate like their sexual relationship.Overall I found t hat Plath uses a lot of provocative imagery to make a statement, to shock and cause the reader to take notice of what she is trying to say. I also feel she uses these images in a great way to provoke or create intense emotions for the reader and suggest these are the same emotions she herself is going through.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

How a Virus Finds a Host Essay

Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   AIDS and the bird flu have raised concerns about virus attacks in the public eye. Infectious transfer of virus also very often causes the common cold. We are able to tolerate or overcome the vast majority of viruses, but some of them succeed in causing us to fall ill, even to the point of death. Not everyone responds to a virus epidemic in the same way: some overpower the pathogen, while others succumb. A fundamental understanding of the nature of a virus can solve these apparent paradoxes; its mechanism of taking shelter in living tissue is also relevant. It is worth noting at the outset that viruses search for all forms of plants and animals as hosts. Each type of virus has a particular preference of host. A virus is versatile and can change form with ease. Basic genetic structures and systems   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A virus is a kind of bridge between a form of life and an inanimate object. All living things are made from permutations and combinations of four nucleic acids, adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine. Sequences of nucleic acids form genes. Genes are in turn banded together, to form chromosomes. The nucleic acids are joined together by ribose sugars. The latter has one molecule of sugar absent. The structure is entwined in the form of double helix coils inside the nucleus of each living cells. The latter are grouped together in higher forms of life to form tissues and organs. The nucleic acid structure inside each nucleus is called Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   DNA is used by life forms to produce Ribonucleic acids or RNA. RNA has ribose sugar with the oxygen molecule missing in DNA. RNA has just one strand of nucleic acids, as opposed to two in DNA. RNA has uracil instead of thymine. RNA moves out from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of living cells. RNA is used to produce proteins, which act as the materials of life forms. DNA and RNA physiology is at the heart of all life. It is a common system from unicellular life forms to human beings. Protein production by RNA and RNA production by DNA is the chemical basis of life. This is a process, which continues without ceasing from conception to death. Insidious nature   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   We are now ready to look at the nature and structure of a virus. A virus has a structure similar to RNA (Lewin, 744). However, the host DNA does not produce it. It also differs from RNA in that it may have a protective membrane made of protein. A virus is a kind of imposter. It finds a way inside a cell and abuses the host’s DNA to produce proteins of its own. Since a virus has no DNA, it does not qualify as a life form in the strict sense. However, as it able to use host DNA to produce protein, and since it has the ability to replicate, it shares an essential property of living things.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The fine distinction between a virus and a living cell with a nucleus could remain in the academic domain, were it not for the deleterious ability of a virus to threaten well-being and indeed life itself. A mitigating factor is that a virus cannot survive on its own: it must take shelter within the nucleus of a living cell, and is entirely dependant on the host DNA. Cat and mouse   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Higher forms of life, such as human beings, do not surrender to virus attack without a fight, and they most often win. A virus enters a host through the medium of foreign living tissue. Bodily discharges such as sputum, blood, semen, and mucus are the most common agents of viral transfer between one living body and another. Transmission is routine if two members of a species are involved. A virus may occasionally adapt from one genus, even an order, or a phylum to another. Thus, an avian virus can infect a mammal, even a human. It can jump from one bird to another almost inevitably. Viruses know that they cannot always hope to find a host of the same species in which they currently reside (Watson et all, 1016). A virus is always on the search of a new host for its use of the present host’s DNA can be fatal for that host. The virus will have no use for a dead host, and must hence find a new life to infect. It has developed a great adaptive capability, and can adjust to the DNA of a new host, which may be an entirely different form of life in which it has existed before. A bird flu virus in a chicken would like a healthy chicken in which it can spread. Should other chickens be scarce, it will try to infect some other bird it can find. It will settle for a human if it can find no bird or other animal. It is worth repeating that the bird flu virus can move from one bird to another bird or from one bird to a human, only through oral or nasal of anal discharge from the infected and original host. Should the latter be isolated, then the virus is doomed to extinction with the death of its host. Infection is essential for viral transfer.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Animal bodies, especially human beings have powerful and sophisticated systems to combat invading viruses. Should a human being touch and ingest some discharge from an infected host, the virus will gain physical entry, but the body, which it has entered, will not take things lying down. Defense systems in humans and other animals are equipped to detect that a rogue pretending to be RNA has entered the body and is trying to cheat the DNA to produce proteins for its own use.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A virus tries to read the nucleic acid sequence in the DNA of any host that it finds. It then attempts to produce proteins of its own need and choice from the DNA it encounters (Heritage, Evans and Killington, 122). We should bear in mind that a virus is essentially an imposter in the garb of RNA. It tries to adjust its RNA sequence in a manner such that the host DNA cannot see through the disguise.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Higher forms of animal life have defense cells in blood. Soldier cells try to capture foreign virus-loaded tissue as soon as it enters the host. These cells are called macrophages and they contain most invasions by literally swallowing the foreign bodies. This mechanism is not necessarily comprehensive, and some particles of the foreign bodies may escape the macrophage confrontation. The sub-microscopic size of a virus means that a few members of an infectious source may escape the host body’s attention. Virus is then free to enter living cells of the host and start interaction with the DNA. The virus can tell instantly that it now has a different DNA structure. It starts studying the new nucleic acid sequence and sees it can replicate in the changed circumstances.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It is now time for the lymphocytes in the host blood to take charge (Despopoulos and Silbernagl, 68)   Lymphocytes are of two kinds, B and T. The latter specialize in fighting viruses. They recognize the production of unusual proteins, and detect the viral infection of cells. T lymphocytes kill cells infected by a virus, in a bid to contain the infection. T lymphocytes are produced in the thymus. Healthy individuals have immense capacity for defense and can ward off a majority of virus attacks. A compromise often prevails with the T lymphocytes winning the fight against a virus, though it is unable to destroy all traces of the virus in the host. Such a host then functions as a carrier, living with a low intensity of virus attack without external symptoms of any medical condition. A carrier can infect another individual who may succumb to the virus if its T lymphocyte system does not function well. Cancers of the lymphatic system and malnutrition are the primary reason for a host’s T lymphocytes to fail in protecting a host from virus attack.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   We must bear in mind, for the question that has prompted this document, that a virus does not have the luxury of choosing a host. It will take any available living cell and try to adjust to the DNA sequence it finds. Nature favors the host: the virus will generally fail to break the code, or will perish with the host cell whose code it has broken. Immunity   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Though anti-retroviral therapy has now entered the realm of reality, nature provides hosts with the capability to recognize a virus and the will to destroy cells infected by viruses. Nature balances such powers by making viruses highly adaptable. They can quickly change their own sequences of acids in bids to escape detection and to survive. Viruses will also settle for sub-clinical situations in which they are able to survive without killing the host on which it depends.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It follows that immunity is a key to fighting viruses. Higher forms of life are equipped with innate capabilities to fight viruses to the extent that the species can thrive, though some proportion of every population falls prey. Hygiene and balanced nutrition are the only things that most life forms need to defeat thieving viruses. Works Cited Despopoulos, A and Silbernagl, S, Color Atlas of Physiology, Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, 1991 Heritage, J. G. V. Evans, and R. A. Killington, Introductory Microbiology, Cambridge University Press, 1996 Lewin, B, Genes, Oxford University Press, 1997 Watson, J. D. Nancy H. Hopkins, Jeffrey W. Roberts. Joan A. Steitz and Alan M. Weiner, Molecular Biology of the Gene, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. (1998)   

Complaints and litigation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Complaints and litigation - Essay Example Under the system, an individual has the right to file a complaint regarding any aspect of the analysis of the NHS using the NHS complaints system. To use the system, an individual must normally be a patient or former patient of the practitioner or the institution concerned, although it is possible to protest on behalf of someone else. According to Clare (2006) if, an individual wants to protest on behalf of another person, hospital or application must agree that the individual is a qualified representative.Time for filing a complaintThe individual should make your problem as soon as possible after the incident problem. The period for complaints is usually six months from the instance of the incident, or within six months, the person discover that the person has reason to complain but not more than 12 months after the event. However, if a hospital or practice is not aware of the complaint, the six-month period begins to run when they first know about it too long as it is within twelve months after the time the incident occurred.There is sensitivity to waive the time limit where it would be contrary to expect of the person to have complained in time, for example, because of pain or sadness. It must be meaningful to investigate the complaint.The financial compensationIf the person seeks financial retribution for harm to health resulting from medical malpractice, the individual will need to obtain independent legal action. If   the individual is looking for financial compensation.... ual must normally be a patient or former patient of the practitioner or the institution concerned, although it is possible to protest on behalf of someone else. According to Clare (2006) if, an individual wants to protest on behalf of another person, hospital or application must agree that the individual is a qualified representative. Time for filing a complaint The individual should make your problem as soon as possible after the incident problem. The period for complaints is usually six months from the instance of the incident, or within six months, the person discover that the person has reason to complain but not more than 12 months after the event. However, if a hospital or practice is not aware of the complaint, the six-month period begins to run when they first know about it too long as it is within twelve months after the time the incident occurred. There is sensitivity to waive the time limit where it would be contrary to expect of the person to have complained in time, for example, because of pain or sadness. It must be meaningful to investigate the complaint. The financial compensation If the person seeks financial retribution for harm to health resulting from medical malpractice, the individual will need to obtain independent legal action. If the individual is looking for financial compensation, perhaps, lost their property, damaged goods or loss income, it would be helpful to ask the NHS complaints team how to complain as NHS Boards have the ability to give financial compensation. NHS complaints procedure Step One - Local Resolution If the person needs to place a complaint concerning any aspect of NHS system, an individual has to received or refused, the individuals goes to practice, or hospital concerned and request a copy of the complaints process. This

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Environmental Scanning Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

Environmental Scanning - Assignment Example Bullying has been an issue that is likely to hinder the performance of Miami Dolphins significantly. The bullying behaviors among the players include physical and verbal abuse, which lead to the suspension of talented players. For instance, Incognito allegedly bullied Martin verbally due to racial differences (Shpigel, 2014). The bullying case led to the suspension of Incognito who was among the best players. On the other hand, Martin was not comfortable as previously as a result of the verbal insults, which affected him psychologically. The management of Miami Dolphins should ensure that the players relate to each other in a friendly manner. Cohesion of the players will make Miami Dolphins the best league. Racism is an issue that the team members should avoid by practicing racial diversity. In conclusion, environmental scanning allows an organization to identify the problems that hinder the progress. For instance, it has been apparent that bullying is an issue that has affected the performance of Miami Dolphins because of the suspension of the best players, as well as the psychological effects of verbal abuses (Shpigel, 2014). Therefore, Miami Dolphins will regain from the tarnished name by practicing racial diversity. Shpigel, B. (2014, February 14). ‘A Classic Case of Bullying’ on the Dolphins. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Muckrakers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Muckrakers - Essay Example According to McQuail (2000), the media play a watchdog role in society and they should expose all the public officials who abuse their office. These people should be accountable for their actions to the people they represent in government in particular. To that effect, I think all matters of public interested should be thoroughly investigated. However, I believe that if the muckraker has to resort to using the tactics of the one whom they are trying to expose, then the pursuit has gone too far. The other aspect is that this would be tantamount to invasion of privacy. There are certain muckrakers who go deep down into other individuals’ private lives and I think this practice is not good. Every individual is entitled to privacy and this right should not be violated. Though good, muckraking should focus on issues of public interest such as abuse of office by politicians and other public officials instead of concentrating on individuals’ private

Monday, August 26, 2019

Joan of Arc Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Joan of Arc - Essay Example For this reason, the world continues to remember these people long after their demise. One such person who epitomizes selflessness is Joan of Arc, also known as the Maid of France. Joan of Arc overcame challenges that appeared insurmountable at her time and got unheralded achievements. Joan of Arc lived in an era when women did not take a centre stage in matters regarding leadership with male dominance being the order of the day. In the same period, nations engaged one another in wars, which made it a challenge for women to take a leading role. This expose gives an analysis of Joan of Arc's life and the accomplishments, which made her break from the traditional self-image of women. Commonly referred as the Maid of France, Joan of Arc was born in 1412 to Jacques d’Arc and Isabeau Romee, poor farmers at Domremy in the valley of the Meuse (Newman 431). As a young peasant girl, Joan received an education similar to other peasant girls. In this regard, she did not learn how to read and write, but Joan learnt sewing, spinning and repeating the Ave Maria. For someone who went through an informal system of education, it is ironical that Joan of Arc became a subject to many literary works by acclaimed authors. More ironical is that Joan of Arc died at the age of nineteen years (Stanhope 4). Nonetheless, famous English writers such as Shakespeare and Holinshed reviled Joan of Arc, while Southey and Schiller idealized her work with Voltaire ridiculing her (Stone 3). However, for a young girl whose childhood activities included tending to her father’s flocks and working in the field’s, Joan of Arc became a symbol of what Mark Twain referred as a â€Å"peerless human being† (Stone 5). In addition, Mark Twain called her â€Å"the most extraordinary person the human race has ever produced† with George Bernard Shaw calling her â€Å"the queerest fish among the eccentric worthies of the Middle Ages† (Knopf 151). As a young girl, Joan of Arc did not demonstrate any extraordinary acts of boldness and heroism. In fact, Joan of Arc appeared timid when speaking to strangers with her neighbors referring her as a simple-minded though a compassionate girl (Stanhope 4). Joan of Arc’s acts of compassion included tending and nursing the sick and accommodating any wayfarer who found their way to Joan’s home. In addition, Joan was an embodiment of a pious life, which in many cases made her a subject of ridicule by her neighbors and other people. In the fields, Joan would kneel and pray in solitude and go to church and make devotions, which made her spend her pastime in a manner different from the children her age (Stanhope 5). In effect, this young girl started defining her own path at an early age, differentiated from her age mates. Instead of spending time with her peers playing in the fields after spending the day herding or in the farms, Joan of Arc’s commitment to God at her age was exceptional. While Joan was growing up, France was undergoing a series of conflicts between them and England, in the famous period of the Hundred Years’ of War. During Joan’s life in particular, the infant King of England, Henry VI of England, was proclaimed King of France, leaving the rightful heir, Charles the dauphin, holding his weakened courts in a few French provinces (Barstow, â€Å"Joan of Arc† 31). At this time, Joan was only thirteen years, and she had started experiencing visions regarding her being the person who would deliver France

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Mining-hazrds Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Mining-hazrds - Assignment Example The hazards are more dangerous and also unhealthy as compared to other industries. Among the difficulties are the working conditions in the quarries and mines. The employees are exposed to climatic and also weather conditions especially those working in the surface mines. Sometimes the mines may be covered during winter but it only makes the work much more dangerous. However, surface mines pose less risk compared with underground mines. They are recorded to be a dump, noisy, dark and even hot. It, therefore, poses a risk to the health of the workers (Hopkins 2001, p. 25). Water may cover the tunnel floors up to the level of several inches. The only source of lighting in the mines is from the hats of the workers. The operations in the mines get done on limited space. Workers are forced to work on their stomach, knees, hands or their backs. It, therefore, makes the environment less conducive to work. There are unique dangers in the underground mines such as the mine fires, workers being exposed to harmful gases, cave-in and also explosions. Additional hazard that gets experienced in the mining industry is dust. It is generated by the drilling process in the mines. Workers who get exposed to the dust are prone to contaminating lung diseases (Hopkins 2001, p. 26). Hazards can get compared on an international level. It becomes important to integrate the groupings of hazards as well as labeling. A system for all chemicals and also mixtures of the chemicals has, therefore, got established. The classification of the chemical enables the consideration of the adverse effects and helps in evaluating the steps to take. The community, on the other hand, is directly affected by the mining operations. The hazards are felt by the community as they lose their people in the mines. Mining operations affects the community socially, environmentally and also economically. Therefore, the community should get involved

Saturday, August 24, 2019

1.Masculinity and Anxiety OR 2.Romantic Love Suffering (See Details Essay

1.Masculinity and Anxiety OR 2.Romantic Love Suffering (See Details Below) - Essay Example Some people are capable of handling positions of power and some are not, and a person’s gender has nothing to do with this fact. The plays A Doll’s House, by Henrik Ibsen, A Midsummer’s Night Dream, by William Shakespeare, and Les Liaisons Dangereuses, written by Christopher Hampton and adapted from the novel by Choderlos de Laclos, all show men who are driven to anxiety by the position of power that has been forced upon them. A Doll’s House centers around the married couple Torvald and Nora Helmer. As the play begins, the Helmers appear to the picture of married bliss. Everything appears copasetic as the couple discusses Torvald’s recent promotion at the bank and Nora is seemingly doted upon. However, if one were to pay close attention to Torvald’s words, it is apparent that Torvald infantilizes Nora with his pet names: †Is that my little lark twittering out there?†¦Is my little squirrel bustling about?†¦Come, come, my little skylark must not droop her wings. What is this! Is my little squirrel out of temper?1† The names that Torvald chooses to call Nora are all small, cute animals. Not only are they small animals, but he calls her â€Å"small† versions of these animals, implying a certain frailty. Nora accepts this treatment without blinking, even when she is scolded for being a â€Å"spendthrift.† Torvald does this in order to place himself in a superior position over Nora. During the time the play takes place, this is what was expected in the relationships between men and women; the men earned wages and the women took care of the house. Of course, the Helmers even have help taking care of their children, leaving Nora with one less thing that she can do. The infantilizing of Nora is all just part of Torvald’s anxiety, since he proves to not be a strong character. As more is revealed about the Helmers

Friday, August 23, 2019

In The Name of Identity by Amin Maalouf Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

In The Name of Identity by Amin Maalouf - Essay Example Humans cling to their identities through habits that are inherited through generations. It is necessary to accept all identities and identify personal individuality for a better society. Â  The book presents an interesting philosophy towards ethnic forms of identity. The roots of passion and hate are commonly based on such identities and inclinations, and this is mostly unsafe behavior. Such behaviors can be easily forgotten if they are examined closely. However, Maalouf does not believe that all is lost and that there is still faith in humanity if only cultural and religious bearings are given a philosophical thought. Through his argument, it is evident that globalization has both good and negative effects, depending on the form of identity one assumes. For instance, Muslims wage holy war based on their religious inclination. Instead of seeing terrorism as something bad, it is categorized as jihad. Â  People may change their beliefs, and can even change their religion entirely. Malouf is introduced as an Arabic-speaking Lebanese Christian who dwells in France. Greek and Roman philosophy provides the basis for most forms of religion. These philosophies are what have guided the thoughts that most religious inclinations present. However, globalization gradually introduced the diversity and multiculturalism that is seen in the present societal context. Â  Living in other regions far from home presents an identity dilemma that most people cannot handle. This is especially true in cases where the person is not familiar with the local language. A Muslim living in America may see oneself as more of American than an Arab. While identity cannot be grouped, it always brings some form of confusion, especially if there are questions asked. This happens on a national and international scale to most foreigners. In addition, they may be labeled based on the stereotypes people have of such identities. Â  

Thursday, August 22, 2019

An ironical due process system Essay Example for Free

An ironical due process system Essay More often than not, we get to see or read the news. We get to glance at the headlines or top stories. After that, we often come away with a feeling of sadness or revolt in us. We feel that due process has often not been served in the events that we witness in the news. But is the statement of due process advocates right? That it is better to let ten people go free rather than convict one innocent person correct? In this light, I do agree with the statement, that we should set free â€Å"guilty† people rather than convict an innocent man. The statement seems to be noble and even speaks of a time that the system of justice will be perfect in meting out justice in our society. But that time is not now, guilty people get off scot-free and innocent people are sent to jail. Am I confusing one with the other? Let us clarify the answer. The system that we have right now may not be the perfect system. Yes, for all its faults, it is not perfect, but it is the only system that we have (FreeLawAnswer, 2007). Convicting an innocent man would be a miscarriage of justice, the thing the system wants to avert. Yes, it fails at times, but we should believe in the system, unless chaos and anarchy runs amuck. In the final analysis, in agreeing with the statement, it is still better to let ten or more guilty people go then convict an innocent man. But in agreeing with it, I still believe that these guilty people are still within arms reach of the justice system. Maybe they will not pay their dues here, but they will pay it, one way or another. We must believe that if they escape the justice system here, definitely they will not escape the justice system of the next life. But is it like that that guilty people can escape here and innocent people will be victims of an imperfect system? Maybe, but again, we must believe that we would rather have a system that is not perfect but in place rather than not have one at all. Reference FreeLawAnswer. (2007). Would you rather set 10 guilty people free rather than convict an innocent person. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from FreeLawAnswers website. http://www. freelawanswer. com/law/1146-3-law-4. html

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The plague Essay Essay Example for Free

The plague Essay Essay The plague that wiped out one-third of the population of Western Europe in the 14th century was nondiscriminatory. Many reasons contributed to the large number of deaths. The plague was a turning point in Europe socially, economically and culturally. There were several ways in which the plague affected Europe. One of the reasons the plague affected Europe was socially. This was the by-product of a single flea bite. Erasmus of Rotterdam states, â€Å"The plague and sickness in England is due to the filth in the streets and the sputum and dogs’ urine†¦Ã¢â‚¬  which could be close to the correct answer because the fleas infected the rats and then the rats infected other animals which then infected the humans. Giovan Flippo a physician seemed to think people in higher positions would try to take power from some and frighten others. With so many deaths, Europe was socially devastated. Economy was another reason why the plague affected the people of Europe. â€Å"Since the rich fled, death was principally directed towards the poor†¦Ã¢â‚¬  explains French author Nicolas Versoris. This means the poor were left to die and infect more of the poor people while the rich were able to flee. According to M. Bertrand, physician at Marseilles argues â€Å"The plague must be considered a particular chastisement exercised by an angry god†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . Meaning that it was god’s way of showing his anger by taking the lives of people. Again, the plague took the lives from all walks of life, whether rich or poor. So many people died that there weren’t enough people to do jobs therefore a labor shortage occurred. Finally culture played another significant role. Cultural beliefs play an important part in the decision making process for people. â€Å"†¦sent me a little piece of bread that had touched the body of St. Domenica. I fed it to my husband and suddenly the fever broke†, mentioned Lisabetta Centenni, Italian housewife. She believed that her husband was cured by the holy piece of bread because it touched the body of St. Domenica. A French physician, H. de Rochas seemed to think that wearing toads around the necks of the infected would draw the venom of the plague out of their bodies.

Main Stages Involved In Capacity Management Tourism Essay

Main Stages Involved In Capacity Management Tourism Essay Capacity management in the tourism industry is measured by the available seat-miles per month. Capacity management is an important factor within hospitality operations as it tests activity for the manager and therefore gives them an indication of the maximum level of value-added over a period of time, so they can see what the operation could achieve in normal conditions. According to Armistead and Clark (1994, p6) Capacity management is the ability to balance demand from customers and the capability of the service delivery system to satisfy the demand. This places an emphasis on understanding first, the nature of demand by forecasting and second, the options for managing capacity to meet the expected demand. The process consists of forecasting and managing capacity, these are made up from smaller components which will be discussed in further details in this report. 2. Forecasting Forecasting is used to identify capacity gaps between product demand and the current capacity. It is an important process in all management decisions not just tourism management; although each situation is different you can apply the same procedures to make realistic capacity decisions within any business. Forecasting methods can be divided into qualitative and quantitative categories which are based on the availability of historical time series data. Establishing the level of demand when forecasting is of the upmost importance as failure to do so can cause over booking and overcrowding. Other eventualities from inaccuracy of forecasting can include incorrect numbers for staff and lack aircrafts which was one of the factors which effected American airlines development in 1990 (Krajewski and Ritzman, p275) . It helps to understand product life cycle as it will impact the capacity. It is also important for a manager to look at external factors such as trends as they will have an effect on the supply and demand of a product or service, these can include; Ageing population- this will affect the quantitative forecasting as our current population is living longer, so you cant use historical data to establish relationships as its continuously changing. Seasonal trends- They can depend social, economic and environmental impacts. This would be best measure by qualitative forecasting. Disposable income- Due to the recession people will have less disposable income. 2.1 Forecasting Techniques There are various different forecasting techniques that cover various timescales, the two most common techniques are: Long-term capacity management For large projects Usually planned over several years In tourism this will involve several departments Short-term capacity management Plan and order resources Usually a monthly, weekly or daily basis Tourism short term capacity management would involve the cleaning of an aircraft Long term planning requires demand forecasts for an extended period of time, the decisions made are often concerned with strategic decisions to ensure achievement of their desired objectives. Short-term capacity management focuses on relatively small time durations and specific processes; they are specifically for smaller levels of operation. Unfortunately, forecast accuracy declines as the forecasting time lengthens. Forecasts also dont allow for competitors actions however waiting line models and decision trees do. 3. Types of forecasting Forecasting methods can be divided into two broad approaches, these are; Qualitative Quantitative The majority of forecasting techniques use past or historical data in the form of time series. One single method is never used on its own as they are both usually interlinked. 3.1Qualitative Forecasting The Qualitative method generally uses the judgment of experts in the appropriate field to generate forecasts. An advantage of this is that experts can generate a forecast if there isnt any historical data available. The main challenge to qualitative data analysis is that there is no clear and accepted set of conventions for analysis corresponding to those observed with quantitative data (Robson, 1993, p.370). The most popular methods of qualitative forecasting are: Delphi technique Scenario writing Subject approach Expert opinion Life cycle analysis 3.2 Quantitative forecasting The Quantitative methods use historical data; the methods consist of analyzing historical data concerning the time series of the particular variable of interest and other time series if they interlink with the area concerned. There are two main methods used within quantitative forecasting, the first method bases the future forecast on a past trends, these are known as time series methods. The second method also uses historical data. But the forecaster examines the cause and effect relationships of the variable with other relevant variables such as; Disposable income Interest rate Unemployment rate The state of the economy e.g. the recession This type of forecasting uses past time series, forecasting techniques that are under this category are called casual methods. 4. Capacity management After deciding what products and services should be on offered, management should then plan the systems capacity. The first step in the Capacity Management process, forecasting, is the best way to judge attendance and understand product life cycle. Therefore Capacity Management itself is used to make sure the capacity, from a tourism managers point of view, meets the targets set. The capacity of an airline usually depends on the location and the available seats per miles, as well as staff, time and other resources which are used. 4.1 Measuring Capacity According to (Krajewski and Ritzman, p276) No single capacity measure is applicable to all types of situations Every manager will have to take other factors into consideration before they measure their capacity. If there is an insufficient capacity it wont be possible to meet all of the demand, therefore to much capacity is provided and this will result in resources not being used to their maximum capability. 4.2 Coping with Demand The need for accurate forecasts of tourism demand to assist managerial decision making is highly important as the tourism product is perishable and if it doesnt meet the demand they lose revenue as an aircraft still has to fly without the demand being met. There are several ways of coping with demand and these are; Keep the activities level of resources constant and ignore any fluctuations. Adjust capacity to match demand. Change the demand to fit the capacity. 4.3 Queuing Theory Queuing theory is important to an as its one of the important factors in meeting their attendees needs. Queues arise when a demand for a service has exceeded the capacity, the customer doesnt get the service straight away upon arrival so they must wait for the service to be ready. This is an important for an airport as they have a random system which customers can arrive at any time; it isnt difficult for an airport to experience queues, but it is important that they deal with them sufficiently. These queues will often build up, disappear in quieter periods and then reappear all the time as there are always flights departing and arriving. Airports offer departing guests waiting rooms and shops to deal with queues and when they arrive they must go through customs which is a slow but easy method for managing the mass amount of people. 4.4 Queue Discipline Most managers will employ a simple queuing method to ensure a positive experience for the customer. These can be; Priority system for certain customers FIFO First In First Out LIFO Last In First Out 5. Conclusion This report has looked at the three main stages involved in capacity management and the different methods available to any manager. Although forecasting isnt always accurate, there is a wide variety of techniques in the first stage which can be used for any method. It is highly important to consider past experience as well as modern trends for more of a refined forecast, failure to do so could lead into an inaccurate forecast. The capacity management stage can then deal with the demand if it is insufficient or too high, then the queuing theory may be taken into consideration. In an airport due to the nature of the business it is unpredictable to measure the amount of customers as people can come and go as they please. This means the queuing theory may or may not make the service time, however if the demand has been manipulated to help predict the expected demand then it will reduce the waiting time and overall give the customer a positive experience. All of the stages combined prepare a tourism manager for any unforeseen outcomes in a tourism service and will allow them to successfully manage any outcome.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Essay --

There is compelling evidence that cognitive dysfunction is inherent to Parkinson’s disease (PD) (Aarsland et al. 2003; Aarsland et al. 2007a; Aarsland et al. 2010a). Clinical manifestations of cognitive deterioration in PD range from slight deficits -only demonstrable by means of comprehensive neuropsychological testing - up to dementia (Muslimovic et al. 2005; Aarsland et al. 2009; Foltynie et al. 2004). From the earliest stages of the disease, including drug-naà ¯ve subjects, patients suffering from PD may show cognitive impairment (CI). This can be restricted to a single domain or affects multiple cognitive domains (Muslimovic et al. 2005; Foltynie et al. 2004). Based on recent longitudinal studies, there is some evidence suggesting that, along the evolution of the disease, a subgroup of patients presenting defects on distinct cognitive domains will eventually deteriorate to the point of dementia associated to PD (PDD) (Aarsland et al. 2003; Buter et al. 2008; Hely et al. 2008; Emre et al. 2007). Starting on a similar theoretical approach than those used for MCI in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) -where early cognitive deterioration linearly progress to dementia- (Petersen et al. 2001a; Petersen et al. 2001b) an operative redefinition of the construct of MCI in PD has been proposed to identify and diagnose these initial cognitive deficits as early indicators of PDD (Caviness et al. 2007). Historically, MCI has been considered as the transitional stage between normality to dementia, based on the measurable presence of cognitive dysfunctions in single or multiple cognitive domains without concurring disabilities on activities of daily living (Petersen 2004). MCI in AD usually follows a linear progression from subtle deficits to dementia (... ...mild cognitive impairment to dementia in PD patients is characterized by the addition of cortical-type cognitive deficits atop a prominent and progressive frontal-striatal dysfunction. Besides the search for biomarkers, a usefulness definition and development of diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI, should consider to: (i) delimitate the heterogeneous cognitive deficit of PD and how we can accurately assess it in large sample of PD subjects; (ii) establish with prospective studies whether the prognostic value of the severity and the nature of the cognitive deficits; (iii) find a consensus of the minimum of cognitive tasks and instruments to assess cognition in PD and finally, (iv) delimitate the role played by common PD-related neuropsychiatric features such apathy or visual hallucinations as early markers of dementia in absence of evident neuropsychological impairment.

Monday, August 19, 2019

The Environmental Disasters of War Essay -- Iraq War Environment Damag

The Environmental Disasters of War The war in Iraq is a battle that will have many aftereffects. The land, air and water will no doubtingly be targeted. It is inevitable that the war will tale no toll on the environment. The use of weapons of mass destruction is one of the causes for the disastrous outcome that may occur from the war. They contain many hazardous chemicals that will target the environment and cause waste products to be contained in the atmosphere. Weapons of mass destruction will also destroy the layout of the environment, as bombings will destroy many of the earth’s natural resources. These events are the two major effects that will stir from the battle for peace in Iraq. It is fairly expected that these problems cannot be avoided with the manner that the war is being executed. Damage to the earth will occur, and the harm will be enormous. One of the most prominent problems that can have major impact on the environment is that Iraq contains many oil wells around the country. These oil wells have the potential to be seized and used as a large scale destruction device. Should the oil wells be destroyed, there will be a massive disaster area, which can span for miles and miles, and still have effect on other countries. The worry is that because there are so many targeted wells, the effects will be on a extremely larger scale than the oil damage that happened to Kuwait in 1991, as it â€Å"left some parts of Kuwait still lifeless more than a decade later† (Keefe, 2003). An oil spill will target the two main rivers in Iraq, the Tigris and Euphrates, and there are fears that â€Å"Saddam will divert oil into the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, rendering them useless†(Vallis, 2003). These rivers are the main source of fresh... ...ks Cited Cevallos Diego. â€Å"Iraq: Environment Would be Another Victim of War.† Tierramerica. Mar. 5, 2003: 4pp. Lexis Nexis. Susquehanna University, Selinsgrove, PA. March 29, 2003. Keefe, Bob. â€Å"War In The Gulf: Scene in Iraq: The Environment.† Cox Washington Bureau. Mar. 21, 2003: p.9A . Lexis Nexis. Susquehanna University, Selinsgrove, PA. March 29, 2003. Pianin, Eric. â€Å"Environmental Damages a Concern: Experts Fear Effects of War on Persian Gulf could be Irreversible.† The Washington Post. Mar. 20, 2003: p.A21. Lexis Nexis. Susquehanna University, Selinsgrove, PA. March 29, 2003. Vallis, Mary. â€Å"Disaster in the Desert.† National Post. Mar. 21, 2003. : p A18. Lexis Nexis. Susquehanna University, Selinsgrove, PA. March 29, 2003.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Essay on Technical Qualities, Symbolism, and Imagery of Dover Beach

Technical Qualities, Symbolism, and Imagery of "Dover Beach" In "Dover Beach," Matthew Arnold creates a dramatic monologue of the Victorian Era that shows how perceptions can be misleading. Arnold conveys the theme of "Dover Beach" through three essential developments: the technical qualities of the poem itself, symbolism, and imagery. The theme of illusion versus reality in "Dover Beach" reflects the speaker's awareness of the incompatibility between what is perceived and what truly is real. The technical qualities of the poem include rhythm and meter, rhyme, figures of speech, sound, and irony of the words. The mechanics alone do not explain why illusion and reality differ, but they do help to explain how Arnold sets up the poem to support the theme. The most prominent mechanisms include the rhythm and the meter of the lines and the stanzas of the poem. Line 1 is an iambic trimeter: The sea/is calm/to-night. The gentle pulsating rhythm of the iamb mirrors the ebb and flow of the sea. The actual words of the first line manifest this idea to picture a calm sea gently lapping at the beach. The second line, an iambic tetramater, also reveals a calm sea. However, line 3 breaks the pattern and forces the reader to break his or her own rhythm. Line 3 includes: Upon/the straits,//on the French/Coast/the light. The line begins and ends with an iamb, but the middle is broken up with an anapest. The anapest is a foreshadow of the tumult to come. The fourth line breaks up even farther with an anapest at the beginning, but the fifth line recovers the rhythm. Glimmering/and vast//out in/the tran/quil bay. The rhythm recovers by the end of the first stanza, but the original trimeter has not. The number of feet per lin... ...he speaker is supported by the rhythm and the meter, the lack of a consistent rhyme scheme, the figures of speech, the sound of the words, and the irony of the entire poem. The symbolism of the sea and the imagery of light and dark bring out the alternating visual and auditory qualities, which elaborate on illusion and reality, respectively, Arnold's portrayal of one person's battle with illusion and reality shows a complex view of humanity in a simple poem. Works Cited Arnold, Matthew. "Dover Beach." [1867] Literature. 5th ed. Eds. James H. Pickering and Jeffery D. Hoeper. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice, 1997. 952-53. Ciardi, John. How Does A Poem Mean? Boston: Houghton, 1975. 196. Untermeyer, Louis. The Pursuit of Poetry. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1969. 57-59. Walcutt, Charles Child. The Explicator. Chicago: Quadrangle, 1968. 16-9.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Real time inforamtion Essay

Real time information provides up to date transportation arrival information for passengers waiting at airport, bus-stop or train station. They display the number of minutes that passengers can expect to wait before the arrival of their required transportation. On boarding into it the RTI unit displaces and announces its next station, or stop. How does RTI works? Real time information (RTI) unit works by sending a signal from one place of transportation services to RTI sign using satellite and radio communications. The signal from the vehicle is used to locate it along its route. A computer system uses this information to predict how long will the journey be. The data is dispatched every 30 seconds and the location of the vehicle and its estimated time of arrival are set accordingly. There are RTI signs currently located in the local bus services all around London. Countdown is an electronic information display system that gives people waiting at bus stops real-time information on bus arrival times. The increasing use of information technology and electronic communications has raised travellers’ Expectations on the provision of transport information. Increasingly a printed timetable at a bus stop falls short of the mark, and passengers now expect relevant, accurate and timely information to allow them to make informed decisions on travel choices. Real time information displays at bus stops and stations are highly valued by passengers as they provide reassurance on the time they will have to wait for their next bus. Displays at bus stops along a route can display both the predicted and scheduled arrival times, as well as provide supplementary messages to inform passengers of exceptional delays or service information. Such systems usually base their predictions on the actual locations of vehicles combined with timetable database. For example: if we want to look up for the train to go Kingston station this afternoon, in the network rail website we can find a number of information, by means of postcode or the name of the station, subsequently we can also obtain the entire information, of arriving and departing of the train. We can also find information’s about what route we want to take for it has shown the full map view of the particular place starting from the station. It has also given us information about the ticket fare and also includes various information, such as: ticket fare for pick up and off seasons, means to buy the ticket online. All the way through network rails website can get information about the tram services that goes around other big cities in the UK such as Birmingham, black pool, Croydon, Manchester, Nottingham and Sheffield. Further more, if we need a fast journey it also provides information about the tube services in different areas around London such as: Docklands Light Railway Glasgow Subway ,Liverpool Underground London Underground ,and metro.

Friday, August 16, 2019

First They Killed My Father

Song Analysis for First They Killed my Father In Phnom Penh a little girl named Loung and her family had to leave everything behind because of the Khmer Rouge soldiers. Loung Ung wrote a book of her life in Cambodia and three themes for the book are confusion, pain, and hope. This book is called First They Killed My Father and the song I chose that goes with the book is called Gone too soon by Daughtry. For the song I choose three parts from the book. The parts include when Loung had memories of when she was little and was forced to leave her home, when Keav dies and Loung misses her, and finally when Loung loses her mother.Loung and her family were enjoying their time until the soldiers came and made them leave everything behind and leaving behind happiness, and their rich lives. Loung and her siblings were playing and their mother and father were packing and everyone’s smiles turned into frowns. â€Å"Not a day goes by / I’m always asking why† (Daughtry). This is the lyric that I felt matched with this part of the story. â€Å"What’s going on? Where is everyone going? Where have you been? (Ung 19). My first element is confusion.Loung is asking her Ma and Pa all these questions and no one will explain anything, so everyone is confused. Everyone is leaving and walking on foot to places where they don’t know. The area of interaction is approaches to learning because his is where she learns where things will change for now on. However, this is not all the tragedies and emotions that happen. â€Å"Today could have been the next day of the rest of your life†(Daughtry). â€Å"She is not going to live; she is not going to make it† (Ung 97). Everybody dies, but people in Cambodia would die of sickness, starvation, or die a killed death.This part is where Keav is dying from something she ate. Loung Ung and her family are feeling pain. This is the first family member who dies and it is a tragic. She would have never died at such a young if he Khmer Rouge didn’t force all teens to work for soldiers. The area of interaction is health and social. It is health and social because Keav’s health is really bad from starvation and something she ate. This lyric matches with this part of the story by how it explains how Keav could of lived for a very long time.So far Loung has had memories about how her life first began to get worse, and when her first family died. â€Å"Everybody was laughing / instead I just sit here and cry† (Daughtry). â€Å"Ma where are you! Ma you can’t do this to me! ( Ung 160) Depression is hard and it can go for a long time especially if you are in Loung’s family. Ma was taken away and Loung was crying and going over everything she went through. The area of interaction is health and social because Loung is dealing with her feelings for her family.She is longing for everything to be the way it was. This lyric matches this part because she is crying for her life and being hurt while everyone is being normal. This is where the theme is depression. She is always going to be scared for life because of the deaths of Geak, Ma, Pa, and Keav. There is pain, depression, and confusion for the elements in this story. A tragic life for Loung Ung and the struggles she has went through. She may never feel the same way. There are so many songs, and quotes from the book that touch your heart.

Police officer essay Essay

Every person has his own dream or ambition in life. Someone wants to become a soldier, someone a doctor, some an engineer or a politician and so on. Some others aspire for the careers of authors, actors or singers. But my ambition is to become a police officer in my future life. In the drill class in my school, I was very serious, and always tried to follow and learn the rules of parade as perfectly as possible because I wanted to become a member of the police force. A police officer, as far as I know, has to be disciplined, honest and maintain the law and order in the society. He is also expected to possess an attitude of help and rescue towards the deserving cases with a selfless mind. When I grow and become a police officer, my motto will be to serve the society with an impartial attitude by saving the distressed persons and punishing the culprits. I will definitely try to infuse the sense of duty and an essence of discipline into the minds of the common man in the society. I promise not to misuse my power and soil my hands with the dust of corruption. I shall obey my superiors and give protection to my subordinate staff. That is how I shall try to prove myself as a perfect police officer. My father is a senior officer in the police force. He is an ideal example before my eyes. I want to follow his footsteps in my future life.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Traumatic Brain Injury (Tbi)

ABSTRACT Many disabilities can affect people of all ages. Some can be genetic, some can happen to you through accidents, but at the same time, all of them require an understanding of the basic reason behind the problem in order to help those affected by it. As a student I want to share my experiences by doing an experiment, on having Traumatic brain injury (TBI), due to a loss of balance during walking. The experiment will discuss the impact of my simulated disability in my home, school, work and other areas of society or community participation, the development of therapeutic relationships, and the impact on meaningful occupations. Loss of memory and poor concentration reduce the ability to live a normal life. Cognitive deficits after a traumatic brain injury can result in significant functional limitations in all areas of daily living. An individual's ability to simplify learning may be limited, thus making it harder to live independently in the community. There are many different cognitive and physiological disabilities that can affect an individual life and their performance. One of the disabilities that I want to talk about is Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The Lenrow, M. D. , David, Joanne Finegan, and Stewart L Cohen. 2001) Website explains, â€Å"Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex injury with a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities. The impact on a person and his or her family can be devastating†. Head injuries are a serious problem. Whenever you are dealing with the brain, you want to take everything about the injury very seriously. Since our brain identifies who we are, the consequen ces of a brain injury can affect all aspects of our lives, or even including our personality. An injury in these areas limits the use of a specific part of your body, but your personality and mental abilities remain unaffected. Injuring the brain has different effects on people because it depends on the brain part that was injured. This determines the form of recovery treatment that is necessary for the brain to return to its normal operating condition. A traumatic brain injury is a disability that comes from an injury to the brain. This includes the brain stem that will result in impaired cognitive, physical, or emotional functioning. If there is mild loss of consciousness or disorientation that lasts less than 30 minutes, the injury to the brain s considered mild. Memory or consciousness loss for more than 30 minutes makes a similar injury severe. The same word is used to define an injury where there has been skull penetration and memory loss of 24 hours. Individuals can be left in long-term unresponsive states, and even a small change in brain function can affect a person and their family, job, and social and community interactions. In this case, I want to discus the impact from falling on the floor and hitting my head, which was due to loosing balance while walking. Let me take you back to the day my life changed by a small accident. As I was getting up in the morning, I was tiered and could not open my eyes. As I was getting up from bed I didn’t pay any attention to where I was going and tripped on an object on the floor. As I feel, I bang my head against a wooden filing cabinet and my husband found me on the floor five minutes later on the floor. I was confused, lightheaded, dizzy, with blurred vision, ringing in my ears, and bad taste in my mouth. I did not know where I was, and what was going on. My husband help me get up and help me to made my way through the living room, which was hard because it is so narrow that there is very little space between the couch on one side of the room and the chair on the other. I bumped into the chair, and it was no big deal. I sat in the chair in the kitchen, and I looked confused. Nothing made any sense, my head was pounding and I did not understand what was going on. I was able to recognize the people around me but I forgot how to use certain objects such as a spoon, fork, cup, and knife in order to feed my self. My husband was trying to help me but the look on his face was as if he was frustrated, he wasn’t use to this type of behavior because all his life he was use to me being able to do things for my self and the constant assistance was something new to him. As I was getting ready for school I couldn’t remember how to start the car, everything seemed fragmented and I had to ask a friend or family member to help take me to school. At that time the constant absence of information was starting to become annoying, things that I have been doing all of my life just came to a blank. When getting into school I had difficulty finding my class but was able to ask someone there. During study, it was difficult to focus on different tasks such as reading, listening to lecture or writing something down. According to WebAIM (1999), â€Å"Some individuals have difficulties understanding text. These difficulties may be mild or severe, ranging from minor challenges to a complete inability to read any text. It would be unreasonable to expect web developers to accommodate the entire range of reading abilities†. When going to work I had trouble working certain items such as programs on the computer or changing calls on the phone. As I was aiding the doctor I forgot what routines I had to do in order to prepare the patient and equipment. The Trilogy Integrate Resources Inc (2011) website point out that, â€Å"Individuals with a Traumatic Brain Injury most typically experience problems in basic cognitive skills: sustaining attention, concentrating on tasks at hand, and remembering newly learned material. They may think slowly, speak slowly, and solve problems slowly. They may become confused easily when normal routines are changed or when the stimulation level from the environment exceeds their threshold†. Working environment can be effected in many levels, which can create unpleasant situations and uncomfortable dilemma for me. As a result, after injury, I with TBI may be unable to function well in their social roles because of difficulty in planning ahead, in keeping track of time, in coordinating complex events, in making decisions based on broad input, in adapting to changes in life, and in otherwise being the executive in one's own life. After all, even though I was pretend to have disability of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) for three hours it is very hard to deal with this kind of disabilities. Having people around you to care for you and help it is very challenging, and at the same time heart braking because if there is no one out there to help you, you are gone for good.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Profitable Ratio Analysis of Thorntons Plc

Profitablity Ratio Analysis This analysis ratio based on FAME report and annual report of Thortons (PLC) from 2007 to 2010. 1. Gross Profit Margin During period 2007-2010, Thorntons was achieved the highest gross profit margin in 2007. It was increased the sales/revenue 5. 3% (from ? 176. 60m to 186. 00 m). In 2008 the sales was increased 11. 9% (from ? 186. 00m to 208. 12 m) however the gross profit margin was decreased due to the high cost of good sales compare to previous year which was increased 19. 7%. In financial report 2009, the gross profit was declined from 105. 05 m to 104. 969m and declined of gross profit margin from 50. 5% to 48. 87$. In 2010, there was increased in gross profit margin though the sales was decreased from the previous year. In terms of performance against its competitors in similar industry, the performance of Thortons is relatively higher during period 2007-2010 (Figure. 1). The performance of other competitors, Dunhills, only could achieve the 42. 16% in 2010. Compare to its competitors , it was indicated that Thorntons has high gross profit margin, meaning that Thortons has high production efficiency.Having High gross profit margin, Thorntons could pay its operating expense, tax , employee benefits etc. 2. Operating Profit Margin In view of its Operating Profit Margin, Thorntons performance was increased in two consecutive years from 2007 to 2008 with ratio 3. 81 % and 4. 03%. This increase in operating margin was followed by declining in two consecutive years 2009 and 2010 with ratio 3. 77% and 2. 86%. These declined of operating profit margin due to increased in the expenses, especially in employee benefit and inventories expenses which continuously rose from 2007 to 2010.In addition the strategy of company to introduce many new products, increased our multi-channel offer and invested significant sums in new point of sale systems and factory automation has increased the cost. Furthermore the economic downturn from 2009-2010 wa s pressured the company to achieve better income. Compare to the Thorntons’s competitors, the performance of operating margin is less than Dunhills which achieved operating margin average in four years 16. 8% far above Thorntons and Farrero. The decreased of operating margin was happened with Cadbury which fall from 2007-2008. . RETURN ON SHAREHOLDER FUND (ROSF) ROSF measures the profit against total equity invests by share holder. In this regard, the calculation of profit is using profit before tax while other calculation, using profit after tax. Thorntons has stability performance in the middle range to returning the shareholder funds from 2007 up to 2009 compare to its competitors. However the ROSF was decreased in 2010 due to decrease in profit before tax 2. 4% from 2009 to 2010. On the otherhand, Thorntons still achieved Basic earnings per share which increased by 20. % to 6. 5p (2009: 5. 4p) and its Board was recommended a final dividend of 4. 10p (2009: 4. 85p), making the total dividend for the year 6. 05p (2009: 6. 0) Compare to its competitors, the ratio of ROSF of Thorntons is in the middle level and relatively stable. The company generated profit in continuously 4 years with high level achieved in 2009 with profit attributable to share holder ? 6. 068 m. Cadbury was slump down in 2008 but it was achieved the high ROSF in 2009 almost 90% of other competitors with profit attributable to share holder ? 68. 55 m . 4. RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED(ROCE) Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) is measured the operating profit generated against the long term capital in the business. ROCE ratio of Thorntons was increased from 2007 to 2008, and decreased from 2008 to 2010. Though Thorntons has successfully reduced the Net debt since 2008 to 2010 , however the low achievement is influenced by decreasing in operating profit from 2008 to 2010. Compare to its competitors, the ROCE ratio of Thorntons was in the middle achievement lower than Cadbury in 2009 to 2010 .Cadbury was in the negative ROCE in 2008. Dunhills has relatively constant in its ROCE ratio and close to Thorntons in ROCE ratio. If it is further reviewed both Thorntons and Dunhill has very close in average operating profit during period 2007-2010. RECOMENDATION Considering evaluation and analysis of profitability ratios of Thorntons during period 2007-2010 and compare its performance against the competitors in its industry , the following is list of recommendation that could be considered by Thorntons: 1.Since the Revenue (sales) over the years is relatively flat and higher compare to its competitor, it is recommended to reduced the cost of good sales to increase the gross profit by identifying the possibility to reduce the cost from its supply chain operations from procuring raw materials, reducing number of inventories, optimization in line production and goods stock, reviewing the networks selling and model of distribution.It is indicated and might be high opportunity to gai n sales revenue by putting right model of contract sales to anticipate the seasonal conditions. 2. To increase the Operating profit, it is recommended that Thortons to reduce the administration expenses or divested especially in outlet which is indicated unprofitable and focus on the optimum selling and distribution model. 3.Increase revenue by continuously develop new innovative product to generate differentiation from its competitors and maintain the domination of market share. Reference: FAME Report http://investors. thorntons. co. uk/download/pdf/annual_report_Final_sep_2010. pdf http://investors. thorntons. co. uk/download/pdf/ar09. pdf http://investors. thorntons. co. uk/download/pdf/Thorntons_AR2008. pdf http://investors. thorntons. co. uk/download/pdf/Thorntons_AR07. pdf

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Pericles and Julius Caesar Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Pericles and Julius Caesar - Essay Example As two of the preeminent civilizations of antiquity, the inclination to compare the cultures of Greece and Rome is inevitable. While both civilizations exhibited tremendous advancements in politics and culture, they also exhibit distinct differences that attest to the varying nature of their worlds. An interesting feature of investigation concerning ancient Greece and ancient Rome concerns the degrees to which their geography is similar, as this feature affects later political and economic development. While both countries are Mediterranean, the relative features of their terrain vary greatly. The Greek cities had the advantage of being separated by large hills, which protected them against invading tribes. They also bordered a relied heavily on their contiguity to the ocean. While Rome was mountainous – it famously was found by settlers who naturally habituated on the city’s largest hills – the hills weren’t as strategically positioned to prevent invading barbarian tribes as their Greek counterparts. This essay considers the lives of two of these two men – Pericles and Julius Caesar -- that greatly shaped Greek and Roman culture through their military conquests and subsequent political rule; it argues that the subtle differences in their lives are a testament to the divergent nature of ancient Greek and Roman cultures.... When considering the development and early lives of both individuals it’s clear they shared a number of similar elements. Both men were descendants of nobility, and while Pericles father had been outcast for a period, it is clear they had significant advantages in youth. In terms of vision Caesar and Pericles demonstrated a number of divergent opinions. While Caesar was a progressive thinker who embraced education and intellectual virtues, historians recognize that Pericles contribution to this field of thought was outstanding as he greatly embraced Greek art and culture. This distinction is highly relevant as it underlines what many believe to be one of the crucial divisive elements in terms of these two countries of antiquity. When considering the differing art of the two cultures, history has been more favorable to the Greek work of antiquity than the Roman. While Roman art tended towards imitation and decoration, Greek art – influenced by the philosophical writings of Plato – attempted to capture ideal artistic forms. Art historians have documented distinct phases of Greek artistry, including the Mycenaean and Hellenistic periods; conversely Roman art of antiquity is generally characterized through generic conventions, notably the fresco and mosaic formats (Canfora 1996). Within this art one may further contend that there are deeper elements or conventions of these rulers and the way these perspectives took hold in the societies they so profoundly impacted. In these regards, it appears that while Greek culture through Pericles embraced the concept of intellectual knowledge and the examined life, the Caesarian vision was one of instinctual and emotional

Monday, August 12, 2019

Police Communications Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Police Communications Technology - Essay Example Historically In terms of historically, Larry Seigel (2009) emphasized the police officers used only batons to keep the peace. With the introduction of the police cars of the 1990s, the police officers were often charged for racial discrimination policies. To prevent the racial discrimination charges, the police officers on duty were required to installation of car cameras. The car cameras would deter the police officers from entertaining any thoughts of abusing the rights of the crime suspects. The police officers’ actions before, during, and after the crime suspects implemented their illegal activities had been recorded in the police camera. The camera tapes are used in the training of new police recruits. The classroom students are made to criticize whether the police officers were at par or below par in terms of preset benchmarks in terms of crime scene investigation. In addition, the international Association of Chiefs of Police (ACP) emphasized the importance of cameras t o record the police officers’ actual handling of each crime scene. Police technology tips the balance of justice towards the peace makers. The article introduction to police technology clearly shows that the criminal syndicates have resorted to technology to bolster their criminal activities. With modern technology, the crime lords would outsmart the police officers. The crime lord daringly implemented their daring illegal activities under the very noses of the Police officers (in the dead of the night). The criminal elements would often use night vision goggles to watch over the encroaching police officers. With the use of emails, websites, and other internet-related technologies, the crime groups would boldly send messages to fellow group members on their next crime targets. The crime syndicates could not be stopped with the use of modern technology. The new set of police officers used modern police technology to track, gather evidences, and apprehend the crime members. Mod ern technology includes the use of modern weapons to counterattack each criminal activity. The use of modern technology included the use of â€Å"spy† devices to track the phone numbers of the crime members. Modern Technology Modern technology includes the use of satellites to locate a criminal’s car hurriedly escaping into the thick of the night sky into hiding. Modern technology uses the person’s body as a guide to easily locate a person who runs away from the crime scene to avoid being caught taking drugs or selling trucks. Modern technology includes the use of high technology customer care. In terms of technology, William Schwabe (2001) reiterated the old technologies that need replacements include radio equipment, training equipment, administrative systems, accounting systems, computers in the workplace, audio-visual equipment, crowd or riot control, protective gloves, helmets, shields, ballistic and stab resistant armor, integrated data bases of criminal m inds and criminal groups in the community, conference call equipment, and cellular phones. Robert Snow (2007) theorized Modern technology includes the latest in fingerprinting technology. The Sacramento, California police department uses the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS). The program can access the police

Sunday, August 11, 2019

Inflation and Its Major Causes Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Inflation and Its Major Causes - Assignment Example This paper illustrates that the effects of inflation are faced by everyone in the economy. The producers of the goods and services increase their productivities to earning the more profits in the situation of higher prices. The situation also creates an inequality in the society, as the poor become poorer and rich become richer.   It not only affects the economy internally but also disturbs the balance of trades and the exchange rates of money. The situation of demand-pull inflation arises in the results of the increase in the aggregate demand, but the supply remains same in the markets. So the prices rise, and the situation of inflation occurs. If the costs of the production rise in the market, then the prices of factors of productions also increase. Increase in costs of productions results in the rise of goods and services prices in the public markets. To solve the issue of inflation, the government has to introduce new strategies of fiscal as well as monetary policies. Through t hese policies, the profits of savings are increased in the banks, and then the people save more for profits. A rate of interests is also fixed at the low ratio, so the investors start new businesses to maintain the level of demand and supply in the market.

Saturday, August 10, 2019

Customer service excellence Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Customer service excellence - Essay Example This is mostly a designed plan to deliver the best to customers, and general commitment to ensure all needs and complaints are handled. Secondly, responsiveness also determines the kind and the quality of customer service (Gronroos, 2007). Most clients prefer quick response to their needs to a particular business or organization. This includes responding to their emails and calls or fixing the issues at hand. Every organization should make this their priority in order to attract and retain their customers for longer periods. Further, most clients prefer assurance from their service providers. This installs a substantial amount of confidence to them, and organization gains much trust from them in the end. Sometimes organizations find it difficult to balance their needs and expectations of clients. However, an organization can easily do this by ensuring that their main priority is to achieve maximum customer satisfaction. In my opinion, this is one of the best policies, which organizations should adopt in order to be successful in all their transactions. The reason behind this is that the customer will always leave a happy person and will surely come back again for products and services offered. Both the behavior of the individual and that of the customer affect the service quality by the end of the day. The employees of an organization must serve their clients in an outstanding manner. Customer orientation, when they are first introduced into the business, matters a lot. In most cases, they will always encounter quality services as the organizations yearn at retaining them over the years (Reponen, 2002). Secondly, the behavior of the individual determines the level of customer satisfaction as well as the value perception related to different clients of the organization. It is always advisable to ensure that all clients are attended in the best way possible. Finally, it is difficult to know and understand the

Is racism ancient history in our days Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Is racism ancient history in our days - Essay Example Thesis At the beginning of the 21st century, racism is a major social problem affected modern American society which takes its roots in ancient history of the nation. The American nation is especially heterogeneous in terms of religion, nationality, ethnicity, class language, and, of course, race. But prevailing American values emphasize the values of equality of opportunity, fair play, and individualism. While there is some evidence to justify current attitudes, in fact there is better evidence to suggest that race relations in America are still a major source of stress and social tension (Wachtel 23). Another black perspective argues that race in America has become less salient than class. This assessment, if true, would suggest that black-white relations are much better than they have ever been before in America. Race is another factor which influences the distribution of economic and social resources in America. It is important to note that recent years the understanding of race has been changed, because as a collective sentiment, race needs to be upheld and reaffirmed. Modern theories of race suggest that concept of race is more a cultural p henomenon than a economic one. Community of culture and unity of meaning are the main sources that allow the construction and experience of race (Wachtel 78) In modern society, racism complements, but it does not replace, individual prejudice and discrimination. J. Strausbaugh in Black like You: Black Face, White Face indicates that institutional racism is much more widespread than individual racism. Yet, most educational programs against racism are aimed almost exclusively against individual racism. Following Strausbaugh "disrespectful stereotypes are acceptable from people who looks like you, but it is racism when a member of another race finds humor in it" (12). In modern society, racism can exist to some degree regardless of what else is going on in society. Institutional racism, however, cannot thrive without constant replenishment of new personnel who are able to accept the human cost of racist policies without challenging their legitimacy. People who are victimized by racism may combat it most readily by organizing and changing public policies. Altering public policies solely by changing personal opinions of racists is a hopeless, endless endeavor. To a significant extent, racism bears a relationship to sexism, antisemitism, and extreme nationalism. The essence of modern racism is violations of equal human worth which are involved in racism as well as in sexism, anti-semitism, and extreme nationalism. Today, racial prejudices and ideologies rationalize widespread white discrimination against people of color (Strausbaugh 82). This view of a white-dominated America is not popular among most white analysts and commentators in the twenty-first century. More popular is the belief that African Americans and other people of color have made great progress, so much so that white racism is no longer a major barrier in most of their lives. Indeed, few whites are aware of how important racism is to their own feelings, beliefs, thinking, and actions (Thernstrom 20). The extensive use of litigation and legislation in American racial affairs determines the salience of the law. Leading personalities, landmark court rulings and laws, the heritage of legalized segregation and discrimination, bias in the administration of justice and contemporary

Friday, August 9, 2019

A Quantitative Study of Nurse's Attitude toward Patient Advocacy Essay

A Quantitative Study of Nurse's Attitude toward Patient Advocacy Activities - Essay Example The paper highlights how blood-borne nosocomial infections, particularly Hepatitis C (HPC) were inadvertently transmitted to unsuspecting patients’ in some Nevada based Practices’ exclusively due to the unethical practice of reusing medical equipment meant for single use. The reporting of the incidence lead to an epidemiological investigation in the year 2008 by the Center for Disease Control (CDC), which brought the focus on two Las Vegas Clinics, where gross violations of the recommended protocols for single-use equipment had resulted in tragic consequences for most patients’. The paper highlights how nursing practitioners at these facilities were compromised and unable to indulge in healthy procedures due to organizational hierarchical failures and pressures from the top. At the same time, the paper focuses on the issue as and when it has cropped up in the nursing profession worldwide and the implications on patient safety. The report reveals the bottlenecks a nd the obstacles which a nursing practitioner encounters when she tries to bring forth issues on patient safety. ... to-patient transmission incidence in the State of Nevada, which was identified, reported and shortlisted to have occurred due to unethical practice in two particular healthcare facilities (Black, 2011). As the study was investigative in nature, the author was compromised on time as well as resources. However, she has prepared a well designed survey-based study in which she administered a well structured questionnaire to a fair-sized sample of Registered Nurses’ (RN’s) within the state of Nevada who were likely to come up with appropriate and statistically analyzable data for the report. As a background for the study, the author has cited literature which pinpoints to similar problems elsewhere in the world, particularly Australia, where NPs were compromised enough not to report issues related to patient safety out of fear of misaligned retribution or losing their jobs. The author, throughout her paper, has highlighted the constant fear which persistently gnaws at the ba ck of the mind of every NP, who remains in a catch-22 situation at all points of their professional career. While they have legal as well as moral compulsions for patient safety, the ultimate purpose of their professional activity, at the same time they have to fall in line with the professional guidelines issued by their immediate and other superiors in the healthcare facility where they are employed. The author shortlisted 1725 RN’s practicing within the state of Nevada, although the problem had surfaced exclusively due to malpractice at two endoscopy clinics in the southern part of the state. However, as the purpose was to inquire about the attitudinal state of NP’s, the author’s study design was appropriate as it intended to measure the general trend in NP attitude within the state. The

Thursday, August 8, 2019

The propinquity of exploratory history and anecdotal history Essay

The propinquity of exploratory history and anecdotal history - Essay Example History can never express the last word, as it must be revamped, reevaluated with the expansion of new encounters and new viewpoints (Hall and Du Gay, p 12). Today Aristotle's perceptions are acknowledged with some reservation. In the event that history is the past's vocalization, then it contacts us through various types of determined realities that must rely on upon memory, and memory by nature approves vacuity (Adhikari, p. 45). Regardless of the historiographers' honorable endeavors in the nineteenth century, it has not been conceivable to separate all ties from narrating. The rebuilding activity of the past is as much a demonstration of creative ability as it is of recognition. Conceivable reports should be made to connect clear crevices. This is not an assault of history, but rather a liberal demonstration to give believability and congruity to it. The effect of history is at last through words. Be that as it may, words never introduce total implications; words keep on changing in connection to different words. An artistic student of history more than an exploratory antiquarian is persuaded of the obstinacy and delicacy of reality spoke to through words. Energy about the scholarly parts of history adds new measurements to our comprehension of it (Adhikari, p. 46). History can never be absolutely target as the antiquarian's subjective judgment is unequivocal (Adhikari, p. 48). The antiquarian has the privilege to request that in this appreciation he is not judged uniquely in contrast to the craftsman.

Wednesday, August 7, 2019

ANALYSIS OF THE MOVIE MY TRIP TO ITALY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

ANALYSIS OF THE MOVIE MY TRIP TO ITALY - Essay Example These two actors were egotistical, self-absorbed and rude; this is what makes it the more hilarious. This time round, they have been assigned to a second round of restaurants in Italy. Just like several other sequels, the entry of this lacks the surprise element, however that was expected. The thinness of the material is the weakest part in this movie. By trying to intensify the dialogue as well as the characters it outstays its welcome. The narrative is not adequate to stop the movie from losing steam and earlier than expected. Nobody could argue with overstaying in Italy though. Italy’s beauty, comprising Tuscany, Liguria, Rome, Caprio and Amalfi are spectacularly captured by James Clarke’s camera. There is effective utilization of wide angles and overhead shots in image capture such as the cities in the back of the frame as well as boats on the water as the camera moves away in a continuous tracking shot. This is one unbelievably looking movie; however one ought to ask what Winterbottom’s motivation was in coming up with another entry; being one of the most diverse moviemakers globally and usually does not make the same movie a second time. There is recycling of some of the thematic material from other movies such as the Look of Love, which also featured Steve Coogan as a negligent father. Both of the actors are extremely eloquent with their invention. There is more discussion regarding death and age as well as frequent reference to poets such as Lord Byron and pop staples such as Roman holiday. The ironic and thematic goal is that the actors are busy discussing death; not realizing how much time they are wasting. However, the movie’s comedic mistake is in trying to soften Coogan’s character .He was needy, unfaithful and jealous in the first movie but in the sequel he is growing older and intends to spend more time with his son; adding a bit of sentimentality. On the other hand, Steve is more

Tuesday, August 6, 2019

The Ten Commandments Essay Example for Free

The Ten Commandments Essay The Ten Commandments, sometimes known as the Decalogue, a literal translation of the Greek ‘Ten Words’, are found in the book of Exodus chapter 20 v 2 v17 and this is one of the most well known passages in the scriptures. In describing the events of that day the writer of Deuteronomy ( Deuteronomy 4 v 13) refers to them in Hebrew as ‘The Ten Words’ and in Exodus 19 v 5 they are named by God as ‘My Covenant’. Although part of the Jewish scriptures these verses are considered to be important by Christians too and they are often to be found inscribed in both synagogues and churches. The rabbis identified 600 different laws based upon these precepts, yet they can be summarised as in a story of Rabbi Hillel the Elder. A student declared that he would become a disciple of the rabbi if he could recite the whole of the Jewish Law while standing on one leg. Hillel while doing as he asked and standing on only one leg stated ‘What is hateful to you, do not do to your friend. This is the entire Torah; the rest is interpretation’. To this can be added the Shema, Deuteronomy 6 v 4, Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One Two short passages, yet they really do summarize both the Decalogue and indeed the whole law. The context is Mount Sinai three months into the journey of the Hebrews who have left Egypt and are on their way to the Promised Land. Although the scriptures, in particular the book of Leviticus, contain many more rules, some in minute detail, these ten laws are to form the basis of the new society in the Promised Land. The chapter begins ‘And God spoke all these words,’ ( Exodus 20 v 1). This is what gives them their power They are set out in a way that is relatively easy to remember and are in the form of a covenant God’s part and their part in a voluntary agreement. Yahweh announces to them , through Moses, his chosen agent that, having freed them from slavery by His power, as explained in chapter 19 ‘You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt’ Chapter 19 v 4. In verse 5 and 6 He says that He will now make them will now a holy people and a nation of priests. The people agree to this , 19 v 8 ‘We will do everyhting the Lord has said’, and in v 14 we are told tha t they sanctified themselves in preparation. The Jewish Encyclopedia, in a passage designated as Israel’s Call, then describes how God, through Moses and with the accompanyment of thunder, lightning, smoke and the noise of trumpets, reveals himself by his voice and there pronounces ‘the ten fundamental commands of religion and morals’. The decalogue can be easily broken into two sections. The first part, numbers 1-4, is concerned with the relationship between God and his people ‘You shall have no other gods but me’. The second part is concerned society and with the relationships of individuals with each other, first within the family’ honour your father and mother’ and also with the wider world. ’ ( numbers 5 -10 ) and are famously summed up by Jesus in the New Testament, in Luke 10 v 27 ‘ Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind, and love your neighbour as yourself. ’although he was not the only one to make such summaries and in Leviticus they are also, in part , summarized,’Do not seek revenge, nor bear any grudge against one of your people, but you love your neighbor as yourself: I am the Lord. ’ Leviticus 19 v 18. The first commandment, verse 3, is against mental idolatry, while the second, verses 4 and 5 are against the practice of idolatry. The thing these have in common is that they forbid a great attachment to the things of earth, but an attachment to the one true God. The words are designed to show man the way to true contentment in a relationship with God rather than being over concerned with possessions, whether obvious false gods or not. It must be remembered that the group had only recently left Egypt , a country where there were gods of all kinds, many in the shape of animals, but reigned over by human images in the shape of Osiris and his consort Isis. They would have been used to seeing worship of these false gods and may even have been involved in some cases. The words in heaven , on earth and under the earth and in the waters could refer to bird gods, mammals, snakes and crocodiles or fish, all these being included in the complex Egyptian pantheon. In verse 5 God refers to himself as ‘jealous’. Clarke comments that He is thus expressing His immense love for his creation and the image is of a husband who wants to be sure of the fidelity of his partner. The third command is against taking the name of God in vain. In verse 8 and 9 there are two aspects – the keeping of the Sabbath and an injunction to work on the other 6 days and are accompanied by the example of God himself in creation. So these first commands are to do with reverence and man’s religious duty in response to who God is and what he has done, and the second group with his moral obligations towards his fellow men for the next command is one concerned with family relationships and the rest with an ordered society – do not murder, commit adultery, steal, lie or be covetous or greedy. Committing these sins is also a sin against God, because to do so would imply that what God has provided already is not good enough. Hebrew has a relatively small vocabulary and words often stand for more than one thing depending upon the context. The Hebrew word translated steal is of interest because not only does it also include the idea of being deceitful, it is also the word used for kidnapping. The following chapters of Exodus go into detail as to how these laws will work in practice as in the rules about the making of an altar in Exodus 20 v 23 onwards and the care of servants in chapter 21. Despite all these injunctions and their ready accession to what God wanted and promised however it is only a short time afterwards that the Israelites are appealing to Aaron ‘Up, and make us gods, which shall go before us. ’ And then of course ( Exodus 32) he made the golden calf despite the recent injunction in Exodus 20 v 4 ‘You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. ’ Some words and phrases are repeated or almost so ‘You shall’ and ‘You shall not’, but this is not consistent throughout and there seems to be an over emphasis on the negative, rather than the positive, whereas the New Testament summaries are in a positive attitude. Some commentators such as Adam Clarke have noted that the language used means that each person is addressed as an individual with individual responsibilities to obey, rather than the group being addressed as a whole with corporate responsibility. The Decalogue needs to be read, and obeyed, in the context of the whole scriptural revelation of God’s desire for a relationship with his people as is made plain by a wider reading as is seen for instance in Genesis 17 where God appears to Abraham and makes a covenant with him and in passages such as Jeremiah 30 v 10 where Jacob is described as the servant of God whom he will save and in Malachi 1 v 1 where God tells of his love for man. References Bible, New International Version, Hodder and Stoughton, Toronto, 1984 Clarke, A. , Commentary, Exodus 20, available from http://www. godrules. net/library/clarke/clarkeexo20. htm accessed 23rd October 2008 Introduction to Exodus, Jewish Encyclopaedia, available from http://bible. tmtm. com/wiki/Intoduction_to_Exodus_%28Jewish_Encyclopedia%29 accessed 22nd October 2008 Hillel the Elder, available from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Rabbi_Hillel accessed 23rd October 2008