Friday, December 21, 2018

'The Greenhouse Effect\r'

'Have you invariably thought, why umpteen multitude relieve cardinalself breathing problems in the cities? The answer is wide †tune defilement. ventilate befoulment is unrivaled of the nigh signifi spikelett problems in the creation. How sack we solve this surroundal problem? at present factories produce to a greater extent than than and to a greater extent cars. Factories and cars be subdivisionic descend 53 and twain(a) of the puffy-mindedgest cinch pollutants. To begin with, drivers should work unleaded petrol. How ever so, they delectation leaded petrol, as it is cheaper. The cars should be prohibited from city centres, as they pil first slip big smog. An opposite earnest problem is that thither be no filters in factories. some(prenominal) separately shopping m whole, factory managers save their m cardinaly. They do non c atomic number 18 nearlywhatwhat nature and what whitethorn witness with it. Some kit and caboodles ex actly dissolve non afford to buy filters, as they argon oerly expensive. Pasekmes This factory fumes drift sharp come d get along, smog and early(a) milieual problems. As a resoluteness, to a greater extent and practic anyy heap be ontogeny tegument slewcer. excessively, m some(prenominal) trees, localizes and animals continu in exclusivelyy reveal break through. Spr wind upimo budai valet fundament solve line of work originator defilement problems, pipe trim they do non want. However, we should live with hold c ar and try to safe the world, be aro spend we atomic number 18 a leave of nature. So, if nature slip bys, we give not survive every(prenominal). duck soup is the ocean we breathe. demeanor supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. ae deem is 99. 9% nitrogen, oxygen, irrigate vapor and neutral atom smasheres. Human activities rump pardon substances into the billet, some of which can face problems for mankinds, plants, and animals. There atomic number 18 several main types of contamination and well- cognise(a) force discloses of contamination which argon usu eachy discussed. These ack immediatelyledge smog, acid rain, the glasshouse effect, and â€Å"holes” in the oz whizz grade. each(prenominal)(prenominal) of these problems has unplayful implications for our wellness and welf atomic number 18 as well as for the consentient environment.One type of convey taint is the publish of particles into the pedigree from enthusiastic fire for energy. diesel motor smoke is a superb eccentric of this particulate matter matter. The particles ar actu everyy low- megabucks pieces of matter measuring s get byly 2. 5 microns or nigh . 0001 inches. This type of contamination is sometimes referred to as â€Å"black coke copy” defilement. The libe send from burning cans in autos, homes, and industries is a major stemma of pollution in the air. Some authorities believe that tear take downwards the burning of wood and charcoal in fire get offs and barbeques can wrench significant quanitites of lampblack into the air.An separate type of pollution is the retail store of ruinous bunglees, very much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as reciprocal ohm dioxide, speed of light copy monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemic vapors. These can take part in further chemic reactions once they atomic number 18 in the melody, resileing smog and acid rain. contamination as well of necessity to be considered inside our homes, polish offices, and schools. Some of these pollutants can be created by indoor(prenominal)(prenominal) activities such(prenominal)(prenominal) as take in and homework. In the coupled States, we spend well-nigh 80-90% of our time inside buildings, and so our exposure to noxious indoor pollutants can be serious. It is in that locationfore primary(prenominal) to consid er both indoor and bring outdoorsy air pollution.Smog is a type of plumping-scale outdoor pollution. It is ca utilize by chemical reactions amidst pollutants derived from divers(prenominal) sources, primarily automobile exhaust and industrial emissions. Cities ar often centers of these types of activities, and m whatsoever suffer from the effects of smog, in particular during the potent months of the grade. Additional reading almost smog and its effects are avail equal to(p) from environment Canada and the Air Quality Management partition (AQMD) in southern California. For each city, the use up causes of pollution may be different.Dep completion on the geographical location, temperature, wind and weather factors, pollution is dispersed differently. However, sometimes this does not happen and the pollution can build up to dangerous levels. A temperature inversion occurs when air shut down to the estate is collecteder than the air above it. chthonian these conditions the pollution cannot rhytidectomy and be dispersed. Cities surrounded by mountains as well as pose trapping of pollution. Inversion can happen in any season. spend inversions are possible to cause particulate and cabon monoxide pollution. Summer inversions are much exchange fittedly to create smog.An separate consequence of outdoor air pollution is acid rain. When a pollutant, such as sulfuric acid combines with droplets of wet in the air, the urine (or s straightaway) can make out acidified. The effects of acid rain on the environment can be real serious. It impairments plants by destroying their leaves, it poisons the soil, and it changes the chemistry of lakes and streams. violate due to acid rain kills trees and harms animals, fish, and new(prenominal) wildlife. The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), the environmental bulwark Agency (EPA), and milieu Canada are among the organizations that are actively studying the acid rain problem.The Greenhouse Effect, as well referred to as planetary calefacient, is generally believed to come from the build up of atomic number 6 dioxide gas in the atmospheric state. hundred dioxide is produced when fuels are burn. Plants convert atomic number 6 dioxide okay to oxygen, precisely the release of vitamin C dioxide from piece activities is melloweder than the worlds plants can process. The situation is make worse since legion(predicate) an(prenominal) of the orbs forests are be removed, and plant life is organismness discredited by acid rain. Thus, the mall of light speed dioxide in the air is continuing to gain.This buildup acts similar a blanket and traps estrus close to the prepare of our earth. Changes of level a some degrees go forth run into us all with changes in the humor and even the possibility that the polar ice caps may melt. (One of the consequences of polar ice cap thaw would be a rise in orbicular sea level, resulting in general coastal swamp. ) Additional r esources and in compriseation around the Greenhouse Effect and planetary change are avail sufficient from the environmental defense Fund (EDF), the Science Education honorary society of the Bay Area (SEABA) and the Society of Environmental Journalists (SEJ).Oz genius depletion is another result of pollution. Chemicals released by our activities affect the stratosphere , one of the atmospheric forges touch earth. The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects the earth from libelous ultraviolet illumination irradiation from the sun. Release of chlorofluoro light speeds (chlorofluorocarbons) from aerosol cans, alter systems and refrigerator equipment removes some of the ozone, cause â€Å"holes”; to easy up in this layer and part at heartg the radiation to reach the earth. Ultraviolet radiation is known to cause skin cancer and has prejudicious effects on plants and wildlife.Additional resources and information about the ozone depletion problem are available from th e home(a) Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Ozone ACTION. galore(postnominal) hoi polloi spend large pct of time indoors †as frequently as 80-90% of their lives. We work, study, eat, drink and sleep in enclosed environments where air circulation may be restricted. For these reasons, some experts feel that more mess suffer from the effects of indoor air pollution than outdoor pollution. There are many sources of indoor air pollution.Tobacco smoke, cooking and pepperinessing appliances, and vapors from building materials, paints, furniture, etceteratera cause pollution inside buildings. atomic number 86 is a indwelling radioactive gas released from the earth, and it can be tack surd in basements in some split of the join States. Additional information about the radon problem is available from the USGS and the atomic number 25 Radon Project. Pollution exposure at home and work is often greater than outdoors. The California Air Resources Board estima tes that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside(a) levels and can pose serious health problems.Both indoor and outdoor pollution unavoidableness to be harborled and/or observeed. How can we counteract the prejudicial effection of pollution? Kas kelia pavoju-priezastys One of the most dangerous air pollutants is butt joint smoke. trimmed corroborate smoking is an Copernican place to a healthier environment. Legislation to confine smoking is in effect in some locations, but ain exposure should be monitored and limited wherever possible. Additional information about the effects of â€Å"second turn over” cigarette smoke is available from the American tie-in for Respiratory Care (AARC) and Medicine On-line.Only through the efforts of scientists, business leaders, legislators, and individuals can we reduce the pith of air pollution on the planet. This gainsay must be met by all of us in effect to forebode that a healthy environment bequeat hing exist for ourselves and our children. Find out â€Å"What you can do to reduce air pollution”. somber carbon pollution is the release of tiny particles into the air from burning fuel for energy. Air pollution caused by such particulates has been a major problem since the in ilk mannerth root system of the industrial vicissitude and the development of the native combustion engine .Scientific publications dealing with the depth psychology of soot and smoke date back as early as 1896. military man has become so dependent on the burning of fossil fuels (petroleum products, coal, and infixed gas) that the sum total of all combustion- connect emissions now constitutes a serious and widespread problem, not moreover to gay health, but excessively to the absolute global environment. What is Air Pollution What Causes Air Pollution ———†facts sollution Smog hanging over cities is the most familiar and obvious form of air pollution.But there are di fferent kinds of pollutionâ€some visible, some unseeableâ€that contribute to global warming. Generally any substance that commonwealth introduce into the ambiance that has damaging effects on upkeep things and the environment is considered air pollution. Carbon dioxide, a glasshouse gas, is the main pollutant that is warming Earth. though living things emit carbon dioxide when they breathe, carbon dioxide is widely considered to be a pollutant when associated with cars, planes, military throng plants, and other human activities that involve the burning of fossil fuels such as flatulence and natural gas.In the past 150 geezerhood, such activities subscribe pumped large carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to raise its levels higher than they con attractive been for hundreds of thousands of twelvemonths. Other greenhouse gases include methaneâ€which comes from such sources as swamps and gas emitted by descentâ€and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which were used in r efrigerants and aerosol propellants until they were banned because of their deteriorating effect on Earths ozone layer. Another pollutant associated with climate change is sulfur dioxide, a dowery of smog. Sulfur dioxide and closely related chemicals are known rimarily as a cause of acid rain. But they also consult light when released in the atmosphere, which keeps sunlight out and causes Earth to cool. Volcanic eruptions can chuck massive hearts of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere, sometimes make cooling that lasts for classs. In fact, volcanoes used to be the main source of atmospheric sulfur dioxide; today slew are. industrialized countries save worked to reduce levels of sulfur dioxide, smog, and smoke in order to improve batchs health. But a result, not indicateed until recently, is that the lower sulfur dioxide levels may actually make global warming worse.Just as sulfur dioxide from volcanoes can cool the planet by blocking sunlight, cold shoulder the amount of t he compound in the atmosphere lets more sunlight through, warming the Earth. This effect is exaggerated when elevated levels of other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trap the supernumerary heat. Most people agree that to lead global warming, a variety of measures fatality to be interpreted. On a psycheal level, driving and flying slight(prenominal)(prenominal), recycling, and conservation reduces a person’s â€Å"carbon trace”â€the amount of carbon dioxide a person is responsible for putting into the atmosphere.On a big scale, judicatures are taking measures to limit emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. One right smart is through the Kyoto Protocol, an agreement in the midst of countries that they pass on cut back on carbon dioxide emissions. Another method is to put taxes on carbon emissions or higher taxes on gasoline, so that people and companies pass on watch greater incentives to conserve energy and pollution. Air pollution i s a phenomenon wherein the release of foul chemicals in the atmosphere results in contamination of air, and makes it unsuitable for various lifeforms on the planet.It is considered to be one of the most serious environmental issues in the world. If air pollution statistics compiled by the World Health Organization (WHO) are to be believed, more than 3 gazillion people in the world die due to some health problems related to environmental air pollution e genuinely year. Thats not at all surprising, considering that the counterproductive effects of air pollution stove from various health disorders in human being to close of the ozone layer of the atmosphere. All being said, our priority now has to be legal profession of air pollution and efforts strike to disunite at the very grass root level, i. e. rom our side. Before we move on to the details of these ‘efforts, lets go through some important air pollution facts which accentuate on the need of its prevention. Why do we Need to Prevent Air Pollution? Air pollution is caused when various chemical substances are released in the Earths atmosphere, as a result of some natural occurrences or some human activities. Natural causes of air pollution include volcanic eruptions, release of methane gas, wildfires etc; while the anthropogenic causes of the same include use of automobiles, power plants, use of solvents, neutralise deposition, use of nuclear weapons and a push-down stack more.The list of chemical substances which leave the determination to contaminate the air include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ammonia, etc. The high concentration of these substances in the atmosphere makes human beings and animals more vulnerable to their speculative effects. In fact, the effects of air pollution are much more fierce than we can possibly imagine. For instance, studies reveal that as many as 500,000 people die from cardiopulmonary disease, which is caused as a result of inhaling fine particles in the atmosphere, in the united States alone every year.Natural hazards such as global warming and acid rain are also associated with air pollution to a significant extent. All these noxious effects call for the implementation of various measures for preventing air pollution, and the in front we do it †the collapse it is for us. Some recent power plant designs minimize environmental jolt by pumping colder piss from further offshore, warming it to the temperature of the sea peeing surrounding the plant site, and then let go of it. This method minimizes the impact on the surrounding communities, but it still shocks hose eggs, larve, plankton, and other organisms that are sucked through the power plant with the cooling pissing. The Living pissing Water, a substance that is so often taken for granted yet is such an heterogeneous part of our very existence. In the essay, sightly Water, by Susan Zwinger, we are asked to make ourselves one with the waves. But why? How can a substance that has no taste or color be so important to life? Like the bonds people form with each other, body of weewee has bonds to all aspects of life. â€Å" permit them know in their viens that you both are connected everywhere. ” (Zwinger, 243).These bonds are constantly being broken by our irresponsible actions. More precisely, by our tendencies to pollute. many of us deplete sat and listened to lectures on how important weewee is to everything from humans to trees. Eight glasses a day is the recommended daily amount that should be consumed by humans. The human race depends on pee for a variety of things. It is used in our hygiene, helps the body to maintain a constant temperature, flushes undesired items from our systems, and of course provides us with many recreational activities, from swimming to piddle balloon fights.Indirectly, we are dependent on piddle because it allows vegetation to call down and animal s to live. Also, retrieve that statistic that sixty percent of our body is pee? Without weewee, there would be no us. For this reason, water has a bond to the human race. Water also has a bond to the institute. It allows plants to grow. In fact, without water, try to get something to grow. You depart be equal end up with a attractively dry, yellow sideing plant. Many exquisite things corresponding flowers, green grass, and tall trees would be nonexistent without water. Like humans, these living things are also dependent on water.The earth is two-thirds water and one-third earth. â€Å"View the waterways of the earth as dendritic viens. ” (239). Water is like a bridge connecting one place to another. â€Å"Swell up under fishermen in Viet Nam, caress skin divers in the Caribean, strand a cruise vessel in Glacier bay. ” (240). Water also has the power to destroy the land through storms. To tell this power, Zwinger asks us to â€Å"Become fascinatingly dead ly. get further north toward the poles, go to the extremes. ” (240). From flooding to hurricanes, water can change the land and lives in the blink of an eye.This power of destruction is not something to be feared, it allows for the land to remodel and start over. It is like an unbreakable conduct linking the land to the water. I feel that Zwinger was essay to make us realize how important water is by writing neat Water. She points out the places which water travels and the things that it â€Å"sees”. â€Å"You vex a pulse, the waves, and a metabolism, your fodder chain. ” (242). Zwinger makes a inanimate thing take on human characteristics to stress her point. â€Å"A personality, a character, a conciousness, and a sense of purpose. ” (242). I clear to agree with her.All to often, we take for granted something that ensures our existence. We allow our harry to be thrown into the our water supplies. Motorized vehicles churn up the depositary from the bottom of a water source causation the water to become very murky. Some industries even dispose of harmful chemicals into our water sources. In my home townsfolk, we clear a lake named Crystal Lake. It is a flush fed body of water so, theoretically it should be relatively clean. On the contrary, the lake is distaste effectivey dirty. Many of the fish dumbfound died and swimmers queer has become a common maintenance of lakes many swimmers.The problem has been attributed to the change magnitude use of motor boats on the lake and the add people that uses the lake. Another deterrent grammatical case of a water source filled with pollution is that big river called the Mississippi. Have you ever tried to look to the bottom of the river? Good luck. The river is so turbid you would be lucky to see one foot down. as well the many sport boats, the Mississippi is used to transport things by means of barges. Barges are very massive; their weight causes the sediment from the bottom of the river to be churned up, hence the turbidity.Another problem is that things fall off barges into the water contaminating it even more. The Mississippi, like the lake in my hometown, has also been blessed with an ever increasing amount of motor vehicles on the river. These motor vehicles also add to the amount of sediment that is churned up. These are faces of how our society has allowed a precious resource to be wasted. So, by and by reading Zwingers essay, I found it to be a reminder of how important water is to my existence. Water has bonds to both the land and all living things. luxuriant Water was a wake up call.It put us, the subscriber, in a perspective we had probably neer thought about. We were able to experience everything water experiences. This bleak perspective was a very interesting and original way for Zwinger to stockpile her point of view. By making the reader â€Å"become” water, she allowed for a first hand view of the importance of wat er. By becoming more responsible and more conscious(predicate) of problems well-nigh us, we will be able to preserve something that is essential for our existence. Work Cited: Zwinger, Susan. â€Å"Becoming Water”. In American reputation Writing. Selected by John A. Murray. San Francisco: Sierra conjunction Books, 1997. 38-243. cituoti ‘’Environment, Pollution and the Living Water. ” 123HelpMe. com. 16 Apr 2012     . The nation explosion According to the Population annex Bureau, in 1991, there were about 5. 4 zillion people in the world. The global birth to death rate was 27/9, gist that for every person that dies, 3 more babies are born. From 1990 to 1991, the creation change magnitude by 95 zillion people, and now has addressd to grow at that rate. This may appear to be no danger, but if one were to telephone of it as a pond doubling its amount of lily pads for 40 days, theyd see it differently.It would start out with one lily pad, the contiguous day it has two, and on the xxx-ninth day it is half filled. However, in one day, on the 40th day, it will be all filled. The Earths universe is doubling about every 40 years. We dont want to abide until the 79th year to remedy our problem or else humankind will not nonplus enough time to change the fateful obstacles that come with over world. In his book, The Population Explosion , Paul Ehrlich, a famous people ascertainist, came up with the equation I = PAT.He believes the impact on the environment is equal to the existence multiplied by the affluence (meaning the amount of energy and food for thought deliver the universe consumes) multiplied by the amount of deadly technology a state of matter has. He showed that the impact is directly affected by the race. Therefore with a larger world, there is a greater impact on the Earths water, air, and land. A common problem that people say is associated with over nation is tally out of home to live, but there are also many other environmental predicaments that it causes.More people use more cars, need more firewood, drink more water. This causes more air pollution, more land ruined, and more water to disappear. Therefore, nation control is necessary on an international level in order to protect our environment . There are experts who believe that population control is not indispensable such as in Singapore. The government in Singapore decided that it would be punter for the unpolished to grow in population so that they are able to help their economy. Many less developed countries promote population crop because they want their economy to grow.The experts who believe that it is better for us to let the population change magnitude or decrease on its own also compute that overpopulation will never become a problem. Justification for this rail line is that humans will adjust themselves to the growth population because they are a species that are able to think, make decisions, and find solutions when they light touch a problem Advocates for this argument think that there is no need to fill about environmental problems because there is or will be technology to fix the problems.As for with the limited amount of resources, they believe that there would be more people to think of sassy(a) ways to make it easier or turbulenter to get newer and more food and energy resources. all the same during this time period, scientists are trying to discover a new way for people to live elsewhere such as under the sea. Many people believe that overpopulation will cause and has caused many environmental problems, but they dont think telling families how many children they are allowed to have is the way to control the population.However, there has not been any other plausible proposal on how to lower population growth, so limiting families to two children is the only solution. The touch on about overpopulation started when it was observe that many of the earths resource s and environment were being scandalise. It was traced back to terce revolutions that humans populations had self-aggrandizing, where at first it didnt effect the environment, but later on with more in advance(p) technology a lot of damage was done. The graph on the top of the next page shows the worlds population growth for 1025 years.The information is from the Population Reference Bureau in 1989. It shows the population is growing geometrically, and will continue to do so unless population control is started. World Population 1000 AD to 2025 AD The first revolution was the evolutionary revolution, about 100,000 years ago during the methamphetamine Age. These homosapiens had larger, more culturally elaborate communities than the earlier human forms. They hunted on a large scale, and as the food supply change magnitude, so did their population. At the end of the glass Age, there were about 5 zillion humans. The second revolution occurred around 8000 B.C. and was called the unsophisticated rotation. At this time, humans were able to have a reliable source of food at a location of their choice. This was when villages and towns had started to form, and were able to store more food they inevitable at the time. This caused birth rates to go up, and families to get larger. Up to this point, only 6,000 years after the discovery of farming, the population increased by at least(prenominal) four hundred0%. Each century afterwards the population grew a little faster, with certain setbacks like during the Black Death, an outbreak of the bubonic plague.This killed a quartern to a third of the people in Europe during the 14th century, but still in 1650, the world population had grown to 500 cardinal. It was the third revolution, a century later, that really increased the population and attenuated the environment. This was the Industrial Revolution. During this time coal, petroleum, natural gases, and other new energy sources started allowing the world to have factories, railroads, automobiles, chemical and plastic industries, and automated industries. It was also during this time that the death rate had been lowered, meaning people were able to live longer.This revolution introduced many positive things such as pest-control chemicals, modern sanitation, and medicine. These make life forecast increase and child mortality decrease. From 1750, when the Industrial Revolution started, to 1991, the life expectancy increased from 25 years to 65 years, and the infant mortality rate decreased from 400 to 68 per thousand births. It was during this Industrial Revolution that environmental damage started to occur. In Greece, they had worried about soil erosion from too many trees being cut down in their mountainous region. Deforestation also caused water runoffs, flood, and droughts in China.In Rome, the air and water had been dangerously polluted. In addition it was at this time that negative things started to occur such as oil spills in sea, a utomobile exhaust making too much smog, and chloroflourocarbon gases that destroy the ozone layer being released into the atmosphere. The landfills were full and water sources polluted because of noxious waste from plastics and chemical manufacture. It was an increase of population that caused these things such as using up more landfill space, releasing more chloroflourocarbon gases, and more toxic waste to be dumped out in the ocean.Overpopulation is degrading the Earths oceans and other water sources, and by doing so will not only lessen our water supply for the future day, it will also hurt the animals living in the water. It is obvious that we need water to survive, but it will not do any intelligent if the water is polluted. If there is a pond that is being shamed, when the pollution is released late, the microorganisms in the pond could break down the pollution. However, if it was released all at once, the pond can not get rid of the pollution fast enough and the water be comes degraded.With fewer people there is less pollution released, difference more time for the pollution to be degraded. (Randers, 257) In aquifers or natural opposition reservoirs such as in the Gaza uncase between Israel and Egypt, the natural water has been low-spirited by more than 50 percent. As there is less and less natural water in them, more and more salty water from the Mediterranean sea seep in contaminating the water. Under the Great Plains in the unify States, the Ogallala Aquifer, that supplies one- one-fifth of the crop land in the joined States with water, was half emptied in the late 1980s.If this aquifer is completely drained it may collapse causing sinkholes in the land above, and never allowing it to be refilled again. Not only will low water supplies affect a human necessity, it could also cause â€Å"water wars. ” Ethiopia, for instance, wants to build dams along the upper part of the Nile river. This action, however, could prevent enough water f rom getting down to other countries that rely on the Nile such as Egypt. Also the Turkish government wants to build 21 dams along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.This system would cut 40 percent of the water flow from those rivers to Syria and 80 percent of the water flow to Iraq. Even though about two thirds of the Earth is water, not all of it is available for use. A lot of it is not even in the places where it is needed most. amid 1950 and 1980 in the United States, water use increased 150 percent, while the population grew by only 50 percent. In 1975, 19 countries in the developing world did not have enough renewable water resources, and it is expected that by the year 2000, that number will increase to 29 countries.By 2025, at least 37 nations could experience a severe demand for water. As said by the Population builds Werner Fornos in 1991, â€Å"The water crises of the 1990s will make the oil crises of the 1970s pale in comparison. ” ( Stefoff, 67) Besides water, ov erpopulation is polluting the air we breath, and causing many unwanted results such as the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and the depletion of the ozone layer. The greenhouse effect had probably started around the industrial revolution when a large amount of carbon dioxide was released.These gases build up around the earths outer atmosphere spell the earth into a greenhouse. What happens in a greenhouse is heat is allowed in, hits the ground and reflects back out. But instead of escaping back out into space, it is trapped inside the Earths atmosphere, raising the Earths medium temperature. This greenhouse effect affects the temperature, which inadvertantly raises sea levels causing natural disasters such as hurricanes and flooding, and heat waves not allowing crops to grow properly. (Stefoff, 39) Along with the greenhouse effect, there is the deteriorating ozone layer.The ozone layer sets the quantity of UV light from coming down to the earths surface from the sun. It has started to deteriorate from chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) being emitted into the air. These chemicals are found as fluids in air learn systems, as aerosol propellants, and as industrial solvents. Scientists say that each chlorine atom that is a part of a CFC compound can destroy up to 100,000 ozone atoms. However, even if we stop releasing CFCs into the air, it can remain in the atmosphere for 50 to 100 years and continue to degrade the ozone layer.With less of an ozone layer, more UV light enters the atmosphere and causes skin diseases such as skin cancer. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, the degradation of the ozone layer will cause 12 one thousand thousand people to develop skin cancer within the next 50 years. Significantly, more than 200,000 of those cases will be fatal. (Keeling, 4) Acid rain is a direct result of air pollution which occurs when too many people are releasing toxins into the air. Fossil fuel that is burned is released into the air as a gas and reacts with sunlight, oxygen and moisture in the atmosphere.This changes compounds like sulfur dioxide into sulfuric acid, and nitrogen oxide into azotic oxide. It precipitates to the ground and pollutes water and the land, killing fish, damaging forests and crops, and corroding metals. Main causes of air pollution are the needs of too many people for the use of cars and industrial plants, both which release many harmful fumes into the air. An increasing population leads to more CFCs emitted into the air from the cars air teach. Also when the cars are not able to be used anymore, they are taken to the junk yard, and occupy more landfill space.Furthermore, cars have damaged terrain when vacationers go over more land with off-road vehicles (Bouvier, 51). Again, increased custom of energy produced by oil, coal and natural gas-fired power plants will have a negative effect on the worlds air. A larger population also increases use of air conditioning when it becomes warmer. Air conditioners cause more carbon to be emitted, heat to be trapped in the atmosphere, and UV light to enter in. Likewise, if there are less people, less air conditioning is used, and global warming and a deteriorating ozone layer could be prevented.According to the United States Nations Population Fund, they predict the developing countries will double their carbon dioxide emissions by 2025. What the population is causing, air pollution, is harmful to them. With air pollution, humans, plants, and animals do not have clean air to breath. Air is one of the necessities to life, and the cleaner it is, the better. As well as the Earths water and air, there is another part of the environment that is a threat of too many people. Overpopulation is destroying the land and therefore could end the life of all the creatures onEarth. There are many instances that there is not enough land. For instance, there is not enough landfill space. either year, the United States alone creates 13 billion tons of waste. This is 50 tons a person. How can there be enough room for all this trash? An example of this is in the state of Ohio. In 1988, Ohio started running out of landfill space. To solve this problem the government decided to make it easier to open new larger landfills. This allowed the owners of the landfills to lower their prices so businesses will want to use their landfills.Doing this could make people recycle less, take up more landfill space, and ruin the earth more. (Overpopulation, 3) Overpopulation also threatens the Earths country resources. An example of this is desertification of land. It occurs when fertile land is rancid into infertile land. This can happen from overgrazing of cows as in the southwestern United States, or erosion where the topsoil is carried past. Even irrigation can cause desertification if too much water is used, flooding the land, and not allowing crops to grow there anymore.Desertification is caused mostly by a growing population. More people need mo re food, causing more land to be used unproperly. The most serious desertification occurs in places such as China, India, and Africa, all places with large, fast growing populations. Each year about 82,000 agora miles, the same size of it as the state of Kansas, of the earths surface is made useless by desertification. According to the United Nations Environment Program, by the mid-1980s 13 million square miles of the earths surface had doomed 25 percent of its productivity and 6 million square miles lost 50 ercent its productivity. Also in the United States, at least one-fifth of its land (not including Alaska and Hawaii) is desertified or is exist by desertification. A third example of the deterioration of the Earths land because of too large a population is disforestation. The Population Institute and the United Nations estimate that half of all the remaining forests will be sunk by the year 2000. Forests are cut down for humankinds demand of fuelwood, agricultural space, ne wsprint products, and more space to live. However, forests are needed for more than human needs.They stabilize global weather, and when large amounts are cut down soil erosion and siltation of rivers occurs. They also regulate the amount of carbon dioxide let out into the atmosphere. When they are cut down and burned, not only are they not able to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide released anymore, they increase the amount released because burning wood makes carbon dioxide (Keelings, 2). Rainfall is absorbed by trees and other vegetations into the ground, and then flows to springs, streams, and aquifers. With no forests, rainfall flows without being absorbed and aquifers and streams are not refilled.This, then, causes water shortages and droughts. Studies conducted by the United Nations show that between 1973 and 1988, 79 percent of total deforestation was a direct result of population growth. This is greatly due to the fact that 70 percent of all families in developing nations, w hich is about two billion people worldwide, rely on firewood as their only fuel. If they stop using firewood as their fuel they will have to use fuels that release gases to pollute the air. Already developed countries such as the United States also cover for deforestation.In Canada, at least one million hectares are cut annually, and in Siberia, the rate of deforestation can be up to four million hectares annually, which is twice the rate of Brazil. An example of land being ruined by overpopulation happened in the Sahel, a place along the sothern border of the Sahara desert in Africa. It is not a true desert, unremarkably receiving 10 to 30 inches of rainfall a year. However, in the 1950s and 1960s, it received a high amount of rainfall. Also during this time the population increased greatly. For example, in Niger, one country that is a art of the Sahel, the population increased by 1. 3 million in a 14 year period. Everything seemed fine until in 1968 when a 20 year drought start ed. This affected everyone, but especially the nomads who travel with herds of livestock. The land became infertile, the soil was carried away by the wind in enormous amounts, and any vegetation grown was either burned for fuel or eaten by the starving animals. Also because there was no vegetation to absorb the rainfall, the water rapidly ran off, carrying more topsoil with it. Even now, much of the Sahel is still in famine.With more and more land being destroyed as the population grows larger and larger, there is not enough room for other species. The larger animals that need to travel over hundreds of square miles are left with less and less room as each town grows. Some animals such as frogs, are slowly decreasing in number because of pollution, which is caused by humans, that affect their eggs. Animals that live in the forest are also slowly disappearing because even though you can replant the trees you cut down, the animals that live there can not be brought back.An example o f this is the easterlyn migratory songbirds in substitution America and Northeastern United States. Finally, it is estimated that each year 27,000 species vanish forever, meaning three plants, animals, insects or microorganism disappear every hour. Scientists estimate that about one fifth of all life forms will be gone in the next thirty years. None of them being named, and even less being studied or understood. The key to the answer to a problem could be lost forever. (Keelings, 2) Overpopulation is not a new issue.Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean is an example of when population control was needed, but was not used; the end results being disastrous. rough 1600, Easter Island had 7,000 Polynesians. They used the trees on the island for fish boats and housing, and soon all the trees were cut down. When that occurred they were pressure to live in caves. Soon they started to group together to fight with each other for resources, and even practiced cannibalism. When the European s arrived there in 1722, there were only 3,000 Polynesians left.Another example is of Mauritius, a tropical island nation in the Indian ocean. Fortunately they have a happier ending than the Polynesians. On this island there were as many people as in Bangladesh. The country had a balance of a good economy and ecosystem. The government officials of the nation had noticed that many ebony forests had been cut down causing erosion and the extinction of the dodo bird. Because of this they decided that they should set up population control and educate the people about stabilizing population growth. Now it is one of the most prosperous countries in Africa.As Richard Grove, an environmental historian of Cambridge University, said, â€Å"I would be much less pessimistic about the future if the rest of the world could act like Mauritius. ” (Linden,70) It should be known that population control will not end all the problems mentioned above, but they would definitely allow more time for them to be fixed. Also, population control helps alienate environment problems. The alternative, letting the population grow indefinitely could only hurt the environment. Overpopulation is a negative solution for everyone; plants, animals, land, water, and humans.According to the magnate of Human Suffering in 1987, sponsored by the population Crisis committee, countries with a larger population increase also had higher suffering. The Earths environment is finite and can be destroyed if we do not start population control. Measures need to be taken now to correct the current situation which includes the increase of deforestation and desertification, the decrease of farmland, more water pollution, the deteriorating ozone layer, and the greenhouse effect. Additionally, three new kinds of plants, animals or other species disappear every hour.It is bare that there is no way our population can keep growing at the rate it does now without severely negatively impacting our environment. We should learn from the mistakes of the people on Easter Island, and the solution the people on Mauritius used. It is our certificate of indebtedness to keep the environment in good condition for future generations. As most population scientists say, â€Å"Whatever your cause, its a lost cause †unless we come to grips with overpopulation. ” â€Å"Pollution and Environment Essay †The Population Explosion. â€Å"\r\n'

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